barcode excel 2010 gratis Figure 66 Authorization-grant graph in Software

Creation Code 128 Code Set B in Software Figure 66 Authorization-grant graph

Figure 66 Authorization-grant graph
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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We require that all edges in an authorization graph be part of some path originating with the database administrator The edges between U2 and U3 are deleted, and the resulting authorization graph is as in Figure 68
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Consider a bank where there are many tellers Each teller must have the same types of authorizations to the same set of relations Whenever a new teller is appointed, she will have to be given all these authorizations individually A better scheme would be to specify the authorizations that every teller is to be given, and to separately identify which database users are tellers The system can use these two pieces of information to determine the authorizations of each person who is a teller When a new person is hired as a teller, a user identi er must be allocated to him, and he must be identi ed as a teller Individual permissions given to tellers need not be speci ed again The notion of roles captures this scheme A set of roles is created in the database Authorizations can be granted to roles, in exactly the same fashion as they are granted to individual users Each database user is granted a set of roles (which may be empty) that he or she is authorized to perform
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Authorization graph
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
II Relational Databases
6 Integrity and Security
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
6
Integrity and Security
In our bank database, examples of roles could include teller, branch-manager, auditor, and system-administrator A less preferable alternative would be to create a teller userid, and permit each teller to connect to the database using the teller userid The problem with this scheme is that it would not be possible to identify exactly which teller carried out a transaction, leading to security risks The use of roles has the bene t of requiring users to connect to the database with their own userid Any authorization that can be granted to a user can be granted to a role Roles are granted to users just as authorizations are And like other authorizations, a user may also be granted authorization to grant a particular role to others Thus, branch managers may be granted authorization to grant the teller role
656 Audit Trails
Many secure database applications require an audit trail be maintained An audit trail is a log of all changes (inserts/deletes/updates) to the database, along with information such as which user performed the change and when the change was performed The audit trail aids security in several ways For instance, if the balance on an account is found to be incorrect, the bank may wish to trace all the updates performed on the account, to nd out incorrect (or fraudulent) updates, as well as the persons who carried out the updates The bank could then also use the audit trail to trace all the updates performed by these persons, in order to nd other incorrect or fraudulent updates It is possible to create an audit trail by de ning appropriate triggers on relation updates (using system-de ned variables that identify the user name and time) However, many database systems provide built-in mechanisms to create audit trails, which are much more convenient to use Details of how to create audit trails vary across database systems, and you should refer the database system manuals for details
66 Authorization in SQL
The SQL language offers a fairly powerful mechanism for de ning authorizations We describe these mechanisms, as well as their limitations, in this section
661 Privileges in SQL
The SQL standard includes the privileges delete, insert, select, and update The select privilege corresponds to the read privilege SQL also includes a references privilege that permits a user/role to declare foreign keys when creating relations If the relation to be created includes a foreign key that references attributes of another relation, the user/role must have been granted references privilege on those attributes The reason that the references privilege is a useful feature is somewhat subtle; we explain the reason later in this section
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