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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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<bank> <account> <account-number> A-101 </account-number> <branch-name> Downtown </branch-name> <balance> 500 </balance> </account> <account> <account-number> A-102 </account-number> <branch-name> Perryridge </branch-name> <balance> 400 </balance> </account> <account> <account-number> A-201 </account-number> <branch-name> Brighton </branch-name> <balance> 900 </balance> </account> <customer> <customer-name> Johnson </customer-name> <customer-street> Alma </customer-street> <customer-city> Palo Alto </customer-city> </customer> <customer> <customer-name> Hayes </customer-name> <customer-street> Main </customer-street> <customer-city> Harrison </customer-city> </customer> <depositor> <account-number> A-101 </account-number> <customer-name> Johnson </customer-name> </depositor> <depositor> <account-number> A-201 </account-number> <customer-name> Johnson </customer-name> </depositor> <depositor> <account-number> A-102 </account-number> <customer-name> Hayes </customer-name> </depositor> </bank> Figure 101
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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10
102 Structure of XML Data
The fundamental construct in an XML document is the element An element is simply a pair of matching start- and end-tags, and all the text that appears between them XML documents must have a single root element that encompasses all other elements in the document In the example in Figure 101, the <bank> element forms the root element Further, elements in an XML document must nest properly For instance, <account> <balance> </balance> </account> is properly nested, whereas <account> <balance> </account> </balance> is not properly nested While proper nesting is an intuitive property, we may de ne it more formally Text is said to appear in the context of an element if it appears between the start-tag and end-tag of that element Tags are properly nested if every start-tag has a unique matching end-tag that is in the context of the same parent element Note that text may be mixed with the subelements of an element, as in Figure 102 As with several other features of XML, this freedom makes more sense in a documentprocessing context than in a data-processing context, and is not particularly useful for representing more structured data such as database content in XML The ability to nest elements within other elements provides an alternative way to represent information Figure 103 shows a representation of the bank information from Figure 101, but with account elements nested within customer elements The nested representation makes it easy to nd all accounts of a customer, although it would store account elements redundantly if they are owned by multiple customers Nested representations are widely used in XML data interchange applications to avoid joins For instance, a shipping application would store the full address of sender and receiver redundantly on a shipping document associated with each shipment, whereas a normalized representation may require a join of shipping records with a company-address relation to get address information In addition to elements, XML speci es the notion of an attribute For instance, the type of an account can represented as an attribute, as in Figure 104 The attributes of <account> This account is seldom used any more <account-number> A-102 </account-number> <branch-name> Perryridge </branch-name> <balance> 400 </balance> </account> Figure 102 Mixture of text with subelements
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
III Object Based Databases and XML
10 XML
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Structure of XML Data
<bank-1> <customer> <customer-name> Johnson </customer-name> <customer-street> Alma </customer-street> <customer-city> Palo Alto </customer-city> <account> <account-number> A-101 </account-number> <branch-name> Downtown </branch-name> <balance> 500 </balance> </account> <account> <account-number> A-201 </account-number> <branch-name> Brighton </branch-name> <balance> 900 </balance> </account> </customer> <customer> <customer-name> Hayes </customer-name> <customer-street> Main </customer-street> <customer-city> Harrison </customer-city> <account> <account-number> A-102 </account-number> <branch-name> Perryridge </branch-name> <balance> 400 </balance> </account> </customer> </bank-1> Figure 103 Nested XML representation of bank information
an element appear as name=value pairs before the closing > of a tag Attributes are strings, and do not contain markup Furthermore, attributes can appear only once in a given tag, unlike subelements, which may be repeated Note that in a document construction context, the distinction between subelement and attribute is important an attribute is implicitly text that does not appear in the printed or displayed document However, in database and data exchange applications of XML, this distinction is less relevant, and the choice of representing data as an attribute or a subelement is frequently arbitrary One nal syntactic note is that an element of the form <element></element>, which contains no subelements or text, can be abbreviated as <element/>; abbreviated elements may, however, contain attributes Since XML documents are designed to be exchanged between applications, a namespace mechanism has been introduced to allow organizations to specify globally unique names to be used as element tags in documents The idea of a namespace is to prepend each tag or attribute with a universal resource identi er (for example, a Web address) Thus, for example, if First Bank wanted to ensure that XML documents
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