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data, or even gigabytes of data in large server systems, it is generally too small (or too expensive) for storing the entire database The contents of main memory are usually lost if a power failure or system crash occurs Flash memory Also known as electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), ash memory differs from main memory in that data survive power failure Reading data from ash memory takes less than 100 nanoseconds (a nanosecond is 1/1000 of a microsecond), which is roughly as fast as reading data from main memory However, writing data to ash memory is more complicated data can be written once, which takes about 4 to 10 microseconds, but cannot be overwritten directly To overwrite memory that has been written already, we have to erase an entire bank of memory at once; it is then ready to be written again A drawback of ash memory is that it can support only a limited number of erase cycles, ranging from 10,000 to 1 million Flash memory has found popularity as a replacement for magnetic disks for storing small volumes of data (5 to 10 megabytes) in low-cost computer systems, such as computer systems that are embedded in other devices, in hand-held computers, and in other digital electronic devices such as digital cameras Magnetic-disk storage The primary medium for the long-term on-line storage of data is the magnetic disk Usually, the entire database is stored on magnetic disk The system must move the data from disk to main memory so that they can be accessed After the system has performed the designated operations, the data that have been modi ed must be written to disk The size of magnetic disks currently ranges from a few gigabytes to 80 gigabytes Both the lower and upper end of this range have been growing at about 50 percent per year, and we can expect much larger capacity disks every year Disk storage survives power failures and system crashes Disk-storage devices themselves may sometimes fail and thus destroy data, but such failures usually occur much less frequently than do system crashes Optical storage The most popular forms of optical storage are the compact disk (CD), which can hold about 640 megabytes of data, and the digital video disk (DVD) which can hold 47 or 85 gigabytes of data per side of the disk (or up to 17 gigabytes on a two-sided disk) Data are stored optically on a disk, and are read by a laser The optical disks used in read-only compact disks (CD-ROM) or read-only digital video disk (DVD-ROM) cannot be written, but are supplied with data prerecorded There are record-once versions of compact disk (called CD-R) and digital video disk (called DVD-R), which can be written only once; such disks are also called write-once, read-many (WORM) disks There are also multiple-write versions of compact disk (called CD-RW) and digital video disk (DVD-RW and DVD-RAM), which can be written multiple times Recordable compact disks are magnetic optical storage devices that use optical means to read magnetically encoded data Such disks are useful for archival storage of data as well as distribution of data
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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Overview of Physical Storage Media
Jukebox systems contain a few drives and numerous disks that can be loaded into one of the drives automatically (by a robot arm) on demand Tape storage Tape storage is used primarily for backup and archival data Although magnetic tape is much cheaper than disks, access to data is much slower, because the tape must be accessed sequentially from the beginning For this reason, tape storage is referred to as sequential-access storage In contrast, disk storage is referred to as direct-access storage because it is possible to read data from any location on disk Tapes have a high capacity (40 gigabyte to 300 gigabytes tapes are currently available), and can be removed from the tape drive, so they are well suited to cheap archival storage Tape jukeboxes are used to hold exceptionally large collections of data, such as remote-sensing data from satellites, which could include as much as hundreds of terabytes (1 terabyte = 1012 bytes), or even a petabyte (1 petabyte = 1015 bytes) of data The various storage media can be organized in a hierarchy (Figure 111) according to their speed and their cost The higher levels are expensive, but are fast As we move down the hierarchy, the cost per bit decreases, whereas the access time increases This trade-off is reasonable; if a given storage system were both faster and less expensive than another other properties being the same then there would be no reason to use the slower, more expensive memory In fact, many early storage devices, including paper tape and core memories, are relegated to museums now that magnetic tape and semiconductor memory have become faster and cheaper Magnetic tapes themselves were used to store active data back when disks were expensive and had low
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