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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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metal as recording medium They are much less susceptible to failure by head crashes than the older oxide-coated disks A xed-head disk has a separate head for each track This arrangement allows the computer to switch from track to track quickly, without having to move the head assembly, but because of the large number of heads, the device is extremely expensive Some disk systems have multiple disk arms, allowing more than one track on the same platter to be accessed at a time Fixed-head disks and multiple-arm disks were used in high-performance mainframe systems, but are no longer in production A disk controller interfaces between the computer system and the actual hardware of the disk drive It accepts high-level commands to read or write a sector, and initiates actions, such as moving the disk arm to the right track and actually reading or writing the data Disk controllers also attach checksums to each sector that is written; the checksum is computed from the data written to the sector When the sector is read back, the controller computes the checksum again from the retrieved data and compares it with the stored checksum; if the data are corrupted, with a high probability the newly computed checksum will not match the stored checksum If such an error occurs, the controller will retry the read several times; if the error continues to occur, the controller will signal a read failure Another interesting task that disk controllers perform is remapping of bad sectors If the controller detects that a sector is damaged when the disk is initially formatted, or when an attempt is made to write the sector, it can logically map the sector to a different physical location (allocated from a pool of extra sectors set aside for this purpose) The remapping is noted on disk or in nonvolatile memory, and the write is carried out on the new location Figure 113 shows how disks are connected to a computer system Like other storage units, disks are connected to a computer system or to a controller through a highspeed interconnection In modern disk systems, lower-level functions of the disk controller, such as control of the disk arm, computing and veri cation of checksums, and remapping of bad sectors, are implemented within the disk drive unit The AT attachment (ATA) interface (which is a faster version of the integrated drive electronics (IDE) interface used earlier in IBM PCs) and a small-computersystem interconnect (SCSI; pronounced scuzzy ) are commonly used to connect
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Figure 113 Disk subsystem
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
IV Data Storage and Querying
11 Storage and File Structure
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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disks to personal computers and workstations Mainframe and server systems usually have a faster and more expensive interface, such as high-capacity versions of the SCSI interface, and the Fibre Channel interface While disks are usually connected directly by cables to the disk controller, they can be situated remotely and connected by a high-speed network to the disk controller In the storage area network (SAN) architecture, large numbers of disks are connected by a high-speed network to a number of server computers The disks are usually organized locally using redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID) storage organizations, but the RAID organization may be hidden from the server computers: the disk subsystems pretend each RAID system is a very large and very reliable disk The controller and the disk continue to use SCSI or Fibre Channel interfaces to talk with each other, although they may be separated by a network Remote access to disks across a storage area network means that disks can be shared by multiple computers, which could run different parts of an application in parallel Remote access also means that disks containing important data can be kept in a central server room where they can be monitored and maintained by system administrators, instead of being scattered in different parts of an organization
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