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File of Figure 116, with record 2 deleted and nal record moved
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IV Data Storage and Querying
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header record 0 record 1 record 2 record 3 record 4 record 5 record 6 record 7 record 8
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File of Figure 116, with free list after deletion of records 1, 4, and 6
rst record to store the address of the second available record, and so on Intuitively, we can think of these stored addresses as pointers, since they point to the location of a record The deleted records thus form a linked list, which is often referred to as a free list Figure 119 shows the le of Figure 116, with the free list, after records 1, 4, and 6 have been deleted On insertion of a new record, we use the record pointed to by the header We change the header pointer to point to the next available record If no space is available, we add the new record to the end of the le Insertion and deletion for les of xed-length records are simple to implement, because the space made available by a deleted record is exactly the space needed to insert a record If we allow records of variable length in a le, this match no longer holds An inserted record may not t in the space left free by a deleted record, or it may ll only part of that space
1162 Variable-Length Records
Variable-length records arise in database systems in several ways: Storage of multiple record types in a le Record types that allow variable lengths for one or more elds Record types that allow repeating elds Different techniques for implementing variable-length records exist For purposes of illustration, we shall use one example to demonstrate the various implementation techniques We shall consider a different representation of the account information stored in the le of Figure 116, in which we use one variable-length record for each branch name and for all the account information for that branch The format of the record is
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
IV Data Storage and Querying
11 Storage and File Structure
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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type account-list = record branch-name : char (22); account-info : array [1 ] of record; account-number : char(10); balance : real; end end We de ne account-info as an array with an arbitrary number of elements That is, the type de nition does not limit the number of elements in the array, although any actual record will have a speci c number of elements in its array There is no limit on how large a record can be (up to, of course, the size of the disk storage!)
11621 Byte-String Representation
A simple method for implementing variable-length records is to attach a special endof-record ( ) symbol to the end of each record We can then store each record as a string of consecutive bytes Figure 1110 shows such an organization to represent the le of xed-length records of Figure 116 as variable-length records An alternative version of the byte-string representation stores the record length at the beginning of each record, instead of using end-of-record symbols The byte-string representation as described in Figure 1110 has some disadvantages: It is not easy to reuse space occupied formerly by a deleted record Although techniques exist to manage insertion and deletion, they lead to a large number of small fragments of disk storage that are wasted There is no space, in general, for records to grow longer If a variable-length record becomes longer, it must be moved movement is costly if pointers to the record are stored elsewhere in the database (eg, in indices, or in other records), since the pointers must be located and updated Thus, the basic byte-string representation described here not usually used for implementing variable-length records However, a modi ed form of the byte-string repre0 1 2 3 4 5 Perryridge Round Hill Mianus Downtown Redwood Brighton
A-102 A-305 A-215 A-101 A-222 A-217
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A-201
A-218
A-110
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