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stead should request the database system to force-output the buffer blocks The database system in turn would force-output the buffer blocks to the database, after writing relevant log records to stable storage Unfortunately, almost all current-generation operating systems retain complete control of virtual memory The operating system reserves space on disk for storing virtual-memory pages that are not currently in main memory; this space is called swap space If the operating system decides to output a block Bx , that block is output to the swap space on disk, and there is no way for the database system to get control of the output of buffer blocks Therefore, if the database buffer is in virtual memory, transfers between database les and the buffer in virtual memory must be managed by the database system, which enforces the write-ahead logging requirements that we discussed This approach may result in extra output of data to disk If a block Bx is output by the operating system, that block is not output to the database Instead, it is output to the swap space for the operating system s virtual memory When the database system needs to output Bx , the operating system may need rst to input Bx from its swap space Thus, instead of a single output of Bx , there may be two outputs of Bx (one by the operating system, and one by the database system) and one extra input of Bx Although both approaches suffer from some drawbacks, one or the other must be chosen unless the operating system is designed to support the requirements of database logging Only a few current operating systems, such as the Mach operating system, support these requirements
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Until now, we have considered only the case where a failure results in the loss of information residing in volatile storage while the content of the nonvolatile storage remains intact Although failures in which the content of nonvolatile storage is lost are rare, we nevertheless need to be prepared to deal with this type of failure In this section, we discuss only disk storage Our discussions apply as well to other nonvolatile storage types The basic scheme is to dump the entire content of the database to stable storage periodically say, once per day For example, we may dump the database to one or more magnetic tapes If a failure occurs that results in the loss of physical database blocks, the system uses the most recent dump in restoring the database to a previous consistent state Once this restoration has been accomplished, the system uses the log to bring the database system to the most recent consistent state More precisely, no transaction may be active during the dump procedure, and a procedure similar to checkpointing must take place: 1 Output all log records currently residing in main memory onto stable storage 2 Output all buffer blocks onto the disk
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3 Copy the contents of the database to stable storage 4 Output a log record <dump> onto the stable storage Steps 1, 2, and 4 correspond to the three steps used for checkpoints in Section 1743 To recover from the loss of nonvolatile storage, the system restores the database to disk by using the most recent dump Then, it consults the log and redoes all the transactions that have committed since the most recent dump occurred Notice that no undo operations need to be executed A dump of the database contents is also referred to as an archival dump, since we can archive the dumps and use them later to examine old states of the database Dumps of a database and checkpointing of buffers are similar The simple dump procedure described here is costly for the following two reasons First, the entire database must be be copied to stable storage, resulting in considerable data transfer Second, since transaction processing is halted during the dump procedure, CPU cycles are wasted Fuzzy dump schemes have been developed, which allow transactions to be active while the dump is in progress They are similar to fuzzy checkpointing schemes; see the bibliographical notes for more details
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