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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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The architecture of a database system is greatly in uenced by the underlying computer system on which the database system runs Database systems can be centralized, or client server, where one server machine executes work on behalf of multiple client machines Database systems can also be designed to exploit parallel computer architectures Distributed databases span multiple geographically separated machines 18 rst outlines the architectures of database systems running on server systems, which are used in centralized and client server architectures The various processes that together implement the functionality of a database are outlined here The chapter then outlines parallel computer architectures, and parallel database architectures designed for different types of parallel computers Finally, the chapter outlines architectural issues in building a distributed database system 19 presents a number of issues that arise in a distributed database, and describes how to deal with each issue The issues include how to store data, how to ensure atomicity of transactions that execute at multiple sites, how to perform concurrency control, and how to provide high availability in the presence of failures Distributed query processing and directory systems are also described in this chapter 20 describes how various actions of a database, in particular query processing, can be implemented to exploit parallel processing
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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Database System Architectures
The architecture of a database system is greatly in uenced by the underlying computer system on which it runs, in particular by such aspects of computer architecture as networking, parallelism, and distribution: Networking of computers allows some tasks to be executed on a server system, and some tasks to be executed on client systems This division of work has led to client server database systems Parallel processing within a computer system allows database-system activities to be speeded up, allowing faster response to transactions, as well as more transactions per second Queries can be processed in a way that exploits the parallelism offered by the underlying computer system The need for parallel query processing has led to parallel database systems Distributing data across sites or departments in an organization allows those data to reside where they are generated or most needed, but still to be accessible from other sites and from other departments Keeping multiple copies of the database across different sites also allows large organizations to continue their database operations even when one site is affected by a natural disaster, such as ood, re, or earthquake Distributed database systems handle geographically or administratively distributed data spread across multiple database systems We study the architecture of database systems in this chapter, starting with the traditional centralized systems, and covering client server, parallel, and distributed database systems
181 Centralized and Client Server Architectures
Centralized database systems are those that run on a single computer system and do not interact with other computer systems Such database systems span a range from
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
VI Database System Architecture
18 Database System Architecture
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
18
Database System Architectures
single-user database systems running on personal computers to high-performance database systems running on high-end server systems Client server systems, on the other hand, have functionality split between a server system, and multiple client systems
1811 Centralized Systems
A modern, general-purpose computer system consists of one to a few CPUs and a number of device controllers that are connected through a common bus that provides access to shared memory (Figure 181) The CPUs have local cache memories that store local copies of parts of the memory, to speed up access to data Each device controller is in charge of a speci c type of device (for example, a disk drive, an audio device, or a video display) The CPUs and the device controllers can execute concurrently, competing for memory access Cache memory reduces the contention for memory access, since it reduces the number of times that the CPU needs to access the shared memory We distinguish two ways in which computers are used: as single-user systems and as multiuser systems Personal computers and workstations fall into the rst category A typical single-user system is a desktop unit used by a single person, usually with only one CPU and one or two hard disks, and usually only one person using the
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