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Wide-area networks (WANs) emerged in the late 1960s, mainly as an academic research project to provide ef cient communication among sites, allowing hardware and software to be shared conveniently and economically by a wide community of users Systems that allowed remote terminals to be connected to a central computer via telephone lines were developed in the early 1960s, but they were not true WANs The rst WAN to be designed and developed was the Arpanet Work on the Arpanet began in 1968 The Arpanet has grown from a four-site experimental network to a worldwide network of networks, the Internet, comprising hundreds of millions of computer systems Typical links on the Internet are ber-optic lines and, sometimes, satellite channels Data rates for wide-area links typically range from a few megabits per second to hundreds of gigabits per second The last link, to end user sites, is often based on digital subscriber loop (DSL) technology supporting a few megabits per second), or cable modem (supporting 10 megabits per second), or dial-up modem connections over phone lines (supporting up to 56 kilobits per second) WANs can be classi ed into two types: In discontinuous connection WANs, such as those based on wireless connections, hosts are connected to the network only part of the time In continuous connection WANs, such as the wired Internet, hosts are connected to the network at all times Networks that are not continuously connected typically do not allow transactions across sites, but may keep local copies of remote data, and refresh the copies periodically (every night, for instance) For applications where consistency is not critical, such as sharing of documents, groupware systems such as Lotus Notes allow updates of remote data to be made locally, and the updates are then propagated back to the remote site periodically There is a potential for con icting updates at different sites, con icts that have to be detected and resolved A mechanism for detecting con icting updates is described later, in Section 2354; the resolution mechanism for con icting updates is, however, application dependent
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Centralized database systems run entirely on a single computer With the growth of personal computers and local-area networking, the database frontend functionality has moved increasingly to clients, with server systems providing the back-end functionality Client server interface protocols have helped the growth of client server database systems Servers can be either transaction servers or data servers, although the use of transaction servers greatly exceeds the use of data servers for providing database services Transaction servers have multiple processes, possibly running on multiple processors So that these processes have access to common data, such as
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
18
Database System Architectures
the database buffer, systems store such data in shared memory In addition to processes that handle queries, there are system processes that carry out tasks such as lock and log management and checkpointing Data server systems supply raw data to clients Such systems strive to minimize communication between clients and servers by caching data and locks at the clients Parallel database systems use similar optimizations Parallel database systems consist of multiple processors and multiple disks connected by a fast interconnection network Speedup measures how much we can increase processing speed by increasing parallelism, for a single transaction Scaleup measures how well we can handle an increased number of transactions by increasing parallelism Interference, skew, and start up costs act as barriers to getting ideal speedup and scaleup Parallel database architectures include the shared-memory, shared-disk, shared-nothing, and hierarchical architectures These architectures have different tradeoffs of scalability versus communication speed A distributed database is a collection of partially independent databases that (ideally) share a common schema, and coordinate processing of transactions that access nonlocal data The processors communicate with one another through a communication network that handles routing and connection strategies Principally, there are two types of communication networks: local-area networks and wide-area networks Local-area networks connect nodes that are distributed over small geographical areas, such as a single building or a few adjacent buildings Wide-area networks connect nodes spread over a large geographical area The Internet is the most extensively used wide-area network today Storage-area networks are a special type of local-area network designed to provide fast interconnection between large banks of storage devices and multiple computers
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