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Information about an organization may be split into multiple DITs, each of which stores information about some entries The suf x of a DIT is a sequence of RDN=value pairs that identify what information the DIT stores; the pairs are concatenated to the rest of the distinguished name generated by traversing from the entry to the root For instance, the suf x of a DIT may be o=Lucent, c=USA, while another may have the suf x o=Lucent, c=India The DITs may be organizationally and geographically separated A node in a DIT may contain a referral to another node in another DIT; for instance, the organizational unit Bell Labs under o=Lucent, c=USA may have its own DIT, in which case the DIT for o=Lucent, c=USA would have a node ou=Bell Labs representing a referral to the DIT for Bell Labs Referrals are the key component that help organize a distributed collection of directories into an integrated system When a server gets a query on a DIT, it may
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#include <stdioh> #include <ldaph> main() { LDAP *ld; LDAPMessage *res, *entry; char *dn, *attr, *attrList[] = { telephoneNumber , NULL}; BerElement *ptr; int vals, i; ld = ldap open( auraresearchbell-labscom , LDAP PORT); ldap simple bind(ld, avi , avi-passwd ) ; ldap search s(ld, o=Lucent, c=USA , LDAP SCOPE SUBTREE, cn=Korth , attrList, /*attrsonly*/ 0, &res); printf( found %d entries , ldap count entries(ld, res)); for (entry=ldap rst entry(ld, res); entry != NULL; entry = ldap next entry(ld, entry) { dn = ldap get dn(ld, entry); printf( dn: %s , dn); ldap memfree(dn); for (attr = ldap rst attribute(ld, entry, &ptr); attr ! NULL; attr = ldap next attribute(ld, entry, ptr)) { printf( %s: , attr); vals = ldap get values(ld, entry, attr); for (i=0; vals[i] != NULL; i++) printf( %s, , vals[i]); ldap value free(vals); } } ldap msgfree(res); ldap unbind(ld); } Figure 196 Example of LDAP code in C
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return a referral to the client, which then issues a query on the referenced DIT Access to the referenced DIT is transparent, proceeding without the user s knowledge Alternatively, the server itself may issue the query to the referred DIT and return the results along with locally computed results The hierarchical naming mechanism used by LDAP helps break up control of information across parts of an organization The referral facility then helps integrate all the directories in an organization into a single virtual directory Although it is not an LDAP requirement, organizations often choose to break up information either by geography (for instance, an organization may maintain a directory for each site where the organization has a large presence) or by organizational
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19 Distributed Databases
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19
Distributed Databases
structure (for instance, each organizational unit, such as department, maintains its own directory) Many LDAP implementations support master slave and multimaster replication of DITs, although replication is not part of the current LDAP version 3 standard Work on standardizing replication in LDAP is in progress
1910 Summary
A distributed database system consists of a collection of sites, each of which maintains a local database system Each site is able to process local transactions: those transactions that access data in only that single site In addition, a site may participate in the execution of global transactions; those transactions that access data in several sites The execution of global transactions requires communication among the sites Distributed databases may be homogeneous, where all sites have a common schema and database system code, or heterogeneous, where the schemas and system codes may differ There are several issues involved in storing a relation in the distributed database, including replication and fragmentation It is essential that the system minimize the degree to which a user needs to be aware of how a relation is stored A distributed system may suffer from the same types of failure that can af ict a centralized system There are, however, additional failures with which we need to deal in a distributed environment, including the failure of a site, the failure of a link, loss of a message, and network partition Each of these problems needs to be considered in the design of a distributed recovery scheme To ensure atomicity, all the sites in which a transaction T executed must agree on the nal outcome of the execution T either commits at all sites or aborts at all sites To ensure this property, the transaction coordinator of T must execute a commit protocol The most widely used commit protocol is the two-phase commit protocol The two-phase commit protocol may lead to blocking, the situation in which the fate of a transaction cannot be determined until a failed site (the coordinator) recovers We can use the three-phase commit protocol to reduce the probability of blocking Persistent messaging provides an alternative model for handling distributed transactions The model breaks a single transaction into parts that are executed at different databases Persistent messages (which are guaranteed to be delivered exactly once, regardless of failures), are sent to remote sites to request actions to be taken there While persistent messaging avoids the blocking problem, application developers have to write code to handle various types of failures
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