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24 Advanced Transaction Processing
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durable queue helps ensure that once received and stored in the queue, the messages will be processed eventually, regardless of system failures Authorization and application-server management (for example, server startup, and routing of messages to servers) are further functions of a TP monitor TP monitors often provide logging, recovery, and concurrency-control facilities, allowing application servers to implement the ACID transaction properties directly if required Finally, TP monitors also provide support for persistent messaging Recall that persistent messaging (Section 1943) provides a guarantee that the message will be delivered if (and only if) the transaction commits In addition to these facilities, many TP monitors also provided presentation facilities to create menus/forms interfaces for dumb clients such as terminals; these facilities are no longer important since dumb clients are no longer widely used
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2412 Application Coordination Using TP monitors
Applications today often have to interact with multiple databases They may also have to interact with legacy systems, such as special-purpose data-storage systems built directly on le systems Finally, they may have to communicate with users or other applications at remote sites Hence, they also have to interact with communication subsystems It is important to be able to coordinate data accesses, and to implement ACID properties for transactions across such systems Modern TP monitors provide support for the construction and administration of such large applications, built up from multiple subsystems such as databases, legacy systems, and communication systems A TP monitor treats each subsystem as a resource manager that provides transactional access to some set of resources The interface between the TP monitor and the resource manager is de ned by a set of transaction primitives, such as begin transaction, commit transaction, abort transaction, and
Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
VII Other Topics
24 Advanced Transaction Processing
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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prepare to commit transaction (for two-phase commit) Of course, the resource manager must also provide other services, such as supplying data, to the application The resource-manager interface is de ned by the X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing standard Many database systems support the X/Open standards, and can act as resource managers TP monitors as well as other products, such as SQL systems, that support the X/Open standards can connect to the resource managers In addition, services provided by a TP monitor, such as persistent messaging and durable queues, act as resource managers supporting transactions The TP monitor can act as coordinator of two-phase commit for transactions that access these services as well as database systems For example, when a queued update transaction is executed, an output message is delivered, and the request transaction is removed from the request queue Two-phase commit between the database and the resource managers for the durable queue and persistent messaging helps ensure that, regardless of failures, either all these actions occur, or none occurs We can also use TP monitors to administer complex client server systems consisting of multiple servers and a large number of clients The TP monitor coordinates activities such as system checkpoints and shutdowns It provides security and authentication of clients It administers server pools by adding servers or removing servers without interruption of the system Finally, it controls the scope of failures If a server fails, the TP monitor can detect this failure, abort the transactions in progress, and restart the transactions If a node fails, the TP monitor can migrate transactions to servers at other nodes, again backing out incomplete transactions When failed nodes restart, the TP monitor can govern the recovery of the node s resource managers TP monitors can be used to hide database failures in replicated systems; remote backup systems (Section 1710) are an example of replicated systems Transaction requests are sent to the TP monitor, which relays the messages to one of the database replicas (the primary site, in case of remote backup systems) If one site fails, the TP monitor can transparently route messages to a backup site, masking the failure of the rst site In client server systems, clients often interact with servers via a remote-procedurecall (RPC) mechanism, where a client invokes a procedure call, which is actually executed at the server, with the results sent back to the client As far as the client code that invokes the RPC is concerned, the call looks like a local procedure-call invocation TP monitor systems, such as Encina, provide a transactional RPC interface to their services In such an interface, the RPC mechanism provides calls that can be used to enclose a series of RPC calls within a transaction Thus, updates performed by an RPC are carried out within the scope of the transaction, and can be rolled back if there is any failure
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