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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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24 Advanced Transaction Processing
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compromises may be made that allow for lack of atomicity in certain failure modes Further discussion of these matters appears in the literature (see the bibliographical notes)
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Two-level serializability (2LSR) ensures serializability at two levels of the system: Each local database system ensures local serializability among its local transactions, including those that are part of a global transaction The multidatabase system ensures serializability among the global transactions alone ignoring the orderings induced by local transactions Each of these serializability levels is simple to enforce Local systems already offer guarantees of serializability; thus, the rst requirement is easy to achieve The second requirement applies to only a projection of the global schedule in which local transactions do not appear Thus, the multidatabase system can ensure the second requirement using standard concurrency-control techniques (the precise choice of technique does not matter) The two requirements of 2LSR are not suf cient to ensure global serializability However, under the 2LSR-based approach, we adopt a requirement weaker than serializability, called strong correctness: 1 Preservation of consistency as speci ed by a set of consistency constraints 2 Guarantee that the set of data items read by each transaction is consistent It can be shown that certain restrictions on transaction behavior, combined with 2LSR, are suf cient to ensure strong correctness (although not necessarily to ensure serializability) We list several of these restrictions In each of the protocols, we distinguish between local data and global data Local data items belong to a particular site and are under the sole control of that site Note that there cannot be any consistency constraints between local data items at distinct sites Global data items belong to the multidatabase system, and, though they may be stored at a local site, are under the control of the multidatabase system The global-read protocol allows global transactions to read, but not to update, local data items, while disallowing all access to global data by local transactions The global-read protocol ensures strong correctness if all these conditions hold: 1 Local transactions access only local data items 2 Global transactions may access global data items, and may read local data items (although they must not write local data items) 3 There are no consistency constraints between local and global data items The local-read protocol grants local transactions read access to global data, but disallows all access to local data by global transactions In this protocol, we need to
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Silberschatz Korth Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition
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VII Other Topics
24 Advanced Transaction Processing
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Transaction Management in Multidatabases
introduce the notion of a value dependency A transaction has a value dependency if the value that it writes to a data item at one site depends on a value that it read for a data item on another site The local-read protocol ensures strong correctness if all these conditions hold: 1 Local transactions may access local data items, and may read global data items stored at the site (although they must not write global data items) 2 Global transactions access only global data items 3 No transaction may have a value dependency The global-read write/local-read protocol is the most generous in terms of data access of the protocols that we have considered It allows global transactions to read and write local data, and allows local transactions to read global data However, it imposes both the value-dependency condition of the local-read protocol and the condition from the global-read protocol that there be no consistency constraints between local and global data The global-read write/local-read protocol ensures strong correctness if all these conditions hold: 1 Local transactions may access local data items, and may read global data items stored at the site (although they must not write global data items) 2 Global transactions may access global data items as well as local data items (that is, they may read and write all data) 3 There are no consistency constraints between local and global data items 4 No transaction may have a value dependency
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