barcode in excel 2010 Two Approaches to Simulation in Software

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Two Approaches to Simulation
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Simulators usually take an analytical or a discrete-event approach to modeling the traffic Discreteevent simulation takes the traffic data quite literally and analyzes each packet to determine its behavior The analytical approach is usually much faster, because it reads in the application traffic and makes more assumptions about it before running a simulation Indeed, many argue that the analytical method is just as accurate as the discrete event method Because of the long simulation time involved in using the discrete-event method, it is recommended that, for larger networks (more than 50 routers), a simulation tool employing the analytical method be used NoteThe complexity that goes into simulation tools baffles most of us Just remember that the "garbage in, garbage out" rule applies to all simulators There are two major categories of questions that you should identify before running a simulation: change analysis and fault tolerance It is imperative to have a specific question in mind before setting out on a simulation The question will be concerned with changing something about the production network; or, for fault tolerance, it may question how failure of specific devices or groups of devices will negatively affect application demands Here are some "what if " questions you might ask for each category: Change Analysis: What if we Add or remove an application demand Change or add routers Change or add WAN links or LANs Change routing protocols Move servers Move users Fault Tolerance: What if we Fail a city Fail a facility Fail LANs Fail network devices Fail WAN links Answering these questions using the simulator will help your organization understand much more about its network You will discover useful information relating to capacity planning, rollout validation, and disaster recovery Simulators are obviously very powerful, so let's look at one now
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Simulators are software packages that have typically run on powerful UNIX work- stations in the past They usually cost $40,000 to $100,000 each and require detailed training to use Because of the cost and complexity of simulation tools, many companies contract with a consultant (such as Velte Systems) that specializes in this type of work The firm may provide the tools used in gathering the data and running the simulations CACI Products Company offers a simulation package, COMNET Predictor, that imports the topological map of the network and a collection of application conversations This gives you a fairly realistic model of your network you can use to run simulations against
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COMNET Predictor is an analytical modeling tool from CACI Products Company
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(wwwcaciaslcom) The company also sells a discrete-event modeling tool called COMNET III COMNET Predictor runs on Windows NT; it is intuitive and quite easy to install Alternatively, you can import your topology from third-party sources, such as Cabletron SPECTRUM CACI SIMPROCESS Castlerock SNMPc Digital POLYCENTER HP OpenView IBM Netview for AIX NAC MIND
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Let's walk through a simple COMNET Predictor simulation on a lab network we will build from scratch Figure 10-9 illustrates our test network There are two LAN segments separated by a WAN link There is an NT Server and Workstation on each LAN The network building tools are located in the toolbar on the left side of the screen Creating a network is as simple as clicking the tool for the network item (such as LAN or Server) and dropping the item into the main window You connect devices with links and later define their characteristics (such as a T1 or ISDN connection) by choosing from a predefined list or customizing your own specifications
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Figure 10-9: The test network in COMNET Predictor You can see we have two different models of Cisco routers in our test network The simulation tool is familiar with the capabilities of most Cisco devices and will include those characteristics in the simulation Next we'll have to add traffic to the model Again, in this case, we will keep it simple and create some fictitious traffic demands by hand In Figure 10-10, you can see five traffic demands that were placed manually They indicate the origin, destination, application, protocol, and rate for each traffic demand You can pick applications from a predefined list, or create your own as we did in Figure 10-10 for cc:Mail In a simulation of the production network, there may be thousands of conversations listed in this window These, of course, are imported from the probes
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Figure 10-10: Listing traffic conversations in the model In this example, we have added traffic demands by hand because the network is so simple In real life, though, you'll need to capture them with probes and import them into COMNET Predictor using one of the following sources: Axon Network LAN Servant Compuware EcoScope Frontier Software NETscout HP Netmetrix Network General Distributed Sniffer System Network General Expert Sniffer Wandel & Golterman Domino Analyzer With the topology and traffic demands in place, we are finally ready to run a simulation We simply click the Run Simulation icon (the stoplight button near the center of the main toolbar), and the simulation is under way Because this is a simple network with few demands, the simulation is over in a fraction of a second Numerous reports can be generated in the COMNET Predictor simulator, to examine utilization, forecasting, and network failures Figure 10-11 is a report showing the percentage of utilization for each device or LAN in the network Before we ran the simulation, we told Predictor that we expected a 10% growth in traffic each year Predictor calculated the use of each device or LAN and projected its use for the next two years From this report, we can see that we might want to keep an eye on our WAN link because it is approaching 40% utilization For further analysis, we could easily change the throughput of the WAN link and run another simulation
Figure 10-11: A COMNET Predictor report giving utilization percentages for each network device or link
This chapter introduces many important concepts and applications to make sure your Microsoft/Cisco network stays up and running smoothly and efficiently We examined the benefits of
testing a network, along with several different types of tests that you can conduct Network probes and analyzers were introduced, and application testing was demonstrated using one or two analyzers By conducting traffic analysis, you can learn about the utilization on the LAN and WAN links as well as on network devices You learned about network simulations and the many benefits of proactive network testing Conducting simulations is a very important part of lifecycle management for your network Simulations should be carried out often, because today's network experiences many changes to its ever-evolving topological and traffic makeup We walked through the creation of a topological map of your network, using tools to take inventory of all the devices and their device-specific settings discovered using SNMP We found that running the simulation allows you to answer many "what if " questions to help validate the rollout of a new application or hardware The model also helps you plan your capacity for future growth and determine your plan in case of network failures Remember that application testing and network simulation are neither the starting point nor the ending point for your network design questions Because the digital landscape of your network changes constantly, you'll soon learn to appreciate the importance of staying one step ahead of the next big fire
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