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Naming Services: WINS
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Conceptually, WINS is very much like DNS There are two sides to the service: the client and the server The client has to register the client node with the WINS server and query the WINS server for IPto-NetBIOS name resolution when necessary The server has to receive and process WINS client registrations and queries Part of providing this service also requires that the server communicate with other WINS servers on the network, to exchange the server's database of registrations using replication
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Name Registration, Renewal, and Release
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When the WINS client's TCP/IP stack is initialized, one of its first tasks is to send a name registration request to the WINS server The WINS server then checks its internal database to see if that name already exists If there's no duplicate name, the client is allowed to use the requested name on the network The WINS server also stores the requesting client's IP address and associates it with the newly assigned name Not only is this used when other clients are requesting name-to-IP address mappings, but also to contact another client that may already own a requested name Let's examine the registration, renewal, and release processes
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Once a client gets an IP address, requests a name registration, and is accepted and registered with the WINS server, the client will be able to successfully communicate with other machines on the network If, for some reason, the requested name is already being used on the network by another client, that client is asked to verify that it is still using the name The server first sends a Wait for Acknowledgement (WACK) message to the client requesting the name This is closely followed by a formal name query from the server to the client who originally registered the name If the original owner responds with verification, the server informs the new client that the requested name is already registered to another IP address Once the check for duplicate names is completed and it is determined that the name can be registered on the network, the WINS server sends a positive name registration response to the requesting client The process of name registration is complete
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A WINS client may use its registered name only for a specific amount of time This is called the time to live (TTL), or the renewal interval The TTL prevents the database from filling up with old registration entries no longer in use Clients can then register names that may have been in use previously It is the WINS client's responsibility to keep track of the renewal interval and to reregister with the server when half of this interval has expired If this doesn't happen, the registration is discarded and the name made available for future registrations
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A release is processed when a WINS client gives up its WINS registration When done as part of a normal shutdown, this is called an explicit release During the shutdown process, the client sends a name release request to the WINS server The WINS database entry for this registration is marked "released" by the server If a workstation is improperly shutdown (due to a power failure, for instance) and the client cannot send an explicit release, the server will perform a silent release This kind of release will occur only after the renewal interval has passed and the server has not received a request from the client to continue the name registration
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Node Types
One of the more confusing things about the WINS name resolution process is the method of a client's initial communication with the WINS server On a NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) network, WINS is not necessarily used when resolving name-to-IP address mapping, or it may not be used initially as part of name resolution In fact, one node type, broadcast (b-node), doesn't use WINS at all These facts are particularly important when WINS is down or not working well The node type in use on a workstation is often not considered, or it may be one of the last things checked For example, a workstation configured to use b-node will check the NetBIOS name cache and do a local broadcast before giving up Although the request may be checked against the LMHOSTS file and passed on to DNS, these steps will be performed only if the client is configured to do so In any event, WINS is bypassed completely Other node types will contact a WINS server to resolve name requests, but in various ways Table 11-2 lists the node types along with a brief description of their name resolution behavior Table 11-2: NBT Node Types
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