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PPTP Connections Across WANs: Dial-Up Networking
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Remote users who dial in to the corporate network may check their mail, synchronize their laptops, upload or download sensitive information, and perform a variety of other functions that entail the transmission of proprietary information across a public infrastructure A VPN solution can significantly reduce these vulnerabilities Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a layer-2 protocol used to establish, maintain, and end the physical connection related to dial-up connectivity Before you have the ability to transfer data, a PPP dial-up session goes through four distinct phases of negotiation PHASE 1: PPP LINK ESTABLISHMENT The client and the remote access server select basic communication options, including the authentication protocol and network control protocols (NCPs) Even though the authentication protocol is selected at this time, it isn't actually implemented until Phase 4 The client and the server also negotiate whether or not to use compression and/or encryption Like authentication, the types of compression and/or encryption are decided in Phase 4 PHASE 2: USER AUTHENTICATION The client sends authentication information to the remote access server The remote access server compares the authentication information against its database (or a central authentication database such as TACACS+) Various types of authentication methods can be used, including Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) PAP sends authentication information in cleartext The remote access server requests the username and password, and then PAP sends them in cleartext Obviously, this is not a very secure authentication process Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) CHAP encrypts authentication information before sending it to the remote access server The remote access server sends the client a challenge, including a session ID and an arbitrary challenge string The client uses an algorithm (MD5 one-way hashing algorithm) and the password together to encrypt the challenge, session ID, and password The username is sent unhashed Since the server already knows the password, it applies it to the algorithm and compares the result to the password sent This is more secure than PAP because CHAP (1) encrypts the password; (2) sends arbitrary challenge strings for each authentication attempt; and (3) continues to send challenges throughout the duration of the connection Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) Microsoft's version of CHAP is very similar to plain-vanilla CHAP, with a little more security added to the authentication process MS-CHAP allows the remote access server to store hashed passwords instead of cleartext passwords This version also supports password expiration and user permissions to
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change passwords Under MS-CHAP, the client and server must independently generate an initial key for data encryption by MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption) Therefore, if MPPE encryption is being used, MS-CHAP authentication must also be used PHASE 3: PPP CALLBACK CONTROL Microsoft's implementation of PPP uses Callback Control Protocol (CBCP) If CBCP is enabled, both the client and the remote access server disconnect after authentication The remote access server then calls the client back at the specified number This only works if you have a static number Although it does provide an additional level of security, you have to decide if the security is worth the hassle PHASE 4: INVOKING NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOL(S) The NCPs that were selected during Phase 1 are now enabled in Phase 4 NCPs can include protocols such as the IP Control Protocol (IPCP), which can assign a dynamic IP address to the dial-in user Data compression and data encryption protocols (Phase 1) are also invoked In Microsoft's PPP implementation, MMPC (Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression) for data compression and MPPE for data encryption are used Following the successful negotiation of these four phases, the data transfer process can begin Each transmitted data packet is wrapped in a PPP header, which is then removed by the remote access server Similarly, if encryption and compression were negotiated, each packet will be compressed and encrypted by the client and decompressed and decrypted by the server
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Layer-2 Protocol (L2TP)
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PPTP is a Microsoft technology to establish a virtual connection across a public network PPTP, together with encryption and authentication, provide a private and secure network Cisco developed a protocol similar to PPTP, Layer-2 Forwarding (L2F), but it required Cisco hardware at both ends to support it Cisco and Microsoft then merged the best features of PPTP and L2F and developed Layer-2 Protocol (L2TP) Similar to PPTP, L2TP provides a way for remote users to extend a PPP link across the Internet from the ISP to a corporate site
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