3: Networking Fundamentals in Software

Printer DataMatrix in Software 3: Networking Fundamentals

3: Networking Fundamentals
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At this point, we have learned about the features and capabilities of Windows NT/2000 and about Cisco hardware In Part 2, "Building a Cisco Network with Windows 2000," we will begin to put the pieces together that are necessary in constructing a fast, efficient network Before we begin that process, however, in this chapter we'll take a look at some of the essential networking technologies that make up a network environment The language of networking is filled with acronyms and confusing terminology However, learning a few key concepts will take you far toward understanding networking as a whole This chapter begins by outlining the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model that most networking devices use in one way or another when sending and receiving data After that we will examine the difference between routed and routing protocols Finally, we will cover networking addressing a necessary component to any internetwork that comprises other networks
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The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Seven -Layer Model
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Standards organizations serve a very useful purpose They work hard to ensure a fair and compatible networking environment that allows us to own and manage functional networks using products from many different vendors When the networking community adopts a standard, the end user benefits most It is almost always the only way to get competing vendors to implement solutions that work seamlessly across multiple platforms One model that has been adopted by virtually all networking vendors is the OSI seven-layer model of networking This section outlines the OSI reference model and its benefits The International Organization for Standardization, founded in 1946, published the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model in 1978 to meet the demand of networking vendors and users This seven-layer model has become the standard for designing communication methods among network devices It serves more as a template than a technical standard, but you will see that it permeates all things related to networking The OSI reference model has seven functional layers Each defines a function performed when data is transferred between applications across a network, as illustrated in Figure 3-1 Each layer of the stack defines a set of functions that may be performed by any number of protocols Although a given layer really only communicates with the layers immediately above and below it, there is a virtual communication stream between layers and peers, which is an equivalent implementation of
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the same protocol on a remote system For example, a network-layer protocol will communicate through the protocol stack to the network protocol at the other computer Each protocol layer is only concerned with communication to a peer at the other end of a link and thus creates a virtual link to the other system at the level of the OSI reference model For example, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport-layer protocol that communicates with the transport layer on remote systems to ensure proper delivery of packets from one system to the other
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Figure 3-1: The seven layers in the OSI reference model As mentioned, each layer is concerned with a certain set of functions The layers communicate up and down the stack to remote systems until a virtual connection is established with the equivalent layer in the remote computer Following are descriptions of the primary functions of each layer: Layer 1 The physical layer deals with the actual transport media that are being used This layer defines the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the medium carrying the data signal Some examples of physical media include coaxial cable, fiber-optics, twisted-pair cabling, and serial lines Layer 2 The data-link layer controls access onto the network and partially ensures the reliable transfer of packets across the network This layer controls the synchronization of packets transmitted, as well as the error checking and flow control of transmissions Some examples of data-link controls include token-passing protocols (such as Token Ring) and collision-based protocols (such as Ethernet's CSMA/CD) Layer 2 The network layer is concerned with moving data between different networks or subnetworks This layer is responsible for determining the network address of the destination device for which the data is intended Internet Protocol (IP) and IP routing are functions of layer 3 of the OSI model Layer 4 The transport layer takes care of data transfer, ensuring that the data reaches its destination intact and in the proper order The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) operate at this layer Layer 5 The session layer establishes and terminates connections and arranges sessions to logical parts The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Remote Procedure Call (RPC) provide some functions at this layer Layer 6 The presentation layer is involved in formatting data for the application layer Data encryption, and character-set translation such as ASCII <--> EBCDIC, are performed by protocols at this layer Telnet is an example of a presentation-layer protocol Layer 7 You are probably most familiar with application-layer protocols These protocols are used by applications to communicate with the applications on the remote system For example, protocols for electronic mail (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and file transfers (File Transfer Protocol) work at layer 7
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