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The lower-level protocols (layers 1 and 2) define much of the physical network At the lowest layer (physical), the type of cabling must be chosen (such as twisted-pair Category 5) Next, you have to decide what layer 2 Local Area Network (LAN) topology you will use For example, Token Ring, Ethernet, and Fast Ethernet will all run over category (cat) 5 cabling However, an Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) is quite different from a Token Ring NIC To help you decide what technology
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is best for you, this section discusses the most popular LAN topologies, their advantages, and expected throughputs
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LAN Topologies
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You will encounter three common types of LAN topologies most frequently today: Ethernet, Token Ring, and the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Each of these protocols is distinctly different from the others Each has its own advantages and has a different role to play in your networking environment You will probably have a mix of these topologies in your enterprise Therefore, it's useful to understand the basic functioning of each so you can better choose which one to deploy when designing and building your own network
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Ethernet
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Ethernet is undoubtedly the most popular LAN topology in use today It is a simple and low-cost protocol that was developed jointly in the late 1970s by Xerox, DEC, and Intel Corporations In its first incarnation, Ethernet was designed to move data at speeds up to 10 Mbps (megabits per second) ACCESS CONTROL Ethernet is a contention-based protocol That is, all devices sharing a network segment are unaware of the other devices' intentions to use the media, so it is possible that more than one device may start sending bits along the wire at the same time The Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol acts as a traffic cop to control access to the wire and to ensure the integrity of transmission Before attempting to transmit a message, a device determines whether or not another device is transmitting a message on the media It does this by listening to see if there is a carrier on the wire If it doesn't hear a carrier for 96 microseconds, the device will attempt to transmit the message It must continue to listen while it's transmitting In the event that two devices try to transmit at the same time, a collision occurs Both devices must then back off from their transmission and retry after a random waiting period Because the media are shared by all devices, when a device transmits data, every device on the LAN receives the data Each device checks each data unit to see whether the destination address matches its own address If the addresses match, the device accepts and processes the packet Otherwise, the packet is disregarded THE PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS The physical connections for Ethernet have evolved from a backbone configuration to a star topology The first Ethernet networks were built using a thick, semi-rigid, 04 inch-diameter coaxial cable as a backbone Each cable could support 100 devices and could be no more that 500 meters long because of signal attenuation Although segments could be connected by repeaters to amplify the signal, no more than two repeaters could be used This limited the distance between any two stations on the Ethernet network to no more than 1,500 meters This type of network is called Thicknet, or 10Base5 (which stands for 10 Mbps, baseband, 500 meters per segment) Thin Ethernet was developed to reduce the cost of installation Thin Ethernet uses a flexible RG58 coaxial cable for connecting to devices It still uses a backbone topology, where a single cable runs from machine to machine The cable connects to the NIC using a British Naval Connector (BNC) connection These BNC T connectors are installed on the cable by cutting the cable, fitting each end of the cut with a female connector, and inserting the T-connector between the two new female connectors Thin Ethernet is called 10Base2 (10 Mbps, baseband, 185 meters per segment) Both 10Base2 and 10Base5 use 50-ohm terminators on each end of the cable that act as signal "drains" This prevents the electrical signal from being reflected at the end of the cable and bouncing back and forth along the cable An obvious disadvantage of both Ethernet and Thin Ethernet is reliability All it takes is a single cut in the wire, and all devices fall off the network Also, a bad T-connector, a failed NIC, or a clumsy user can bring down the network To circumvent this issue, most Ethernet networks today are constructed using unshielded twisted-
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pair (UTP) wiring in a star topology At the center of the network is a hub or switch A separate run is made from the hub or switch to each device, as illustrated in Figure 3-2 This allows networks to be installed using horizontal cabling plants that terminate in a wiring closet, thus locating all wiring termination points centrally This makes it much easier to implement moves, adds, and changes and prevents a single user or cable failure from taking down the network
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Figure 3-2: Ethernet can use a backbone or star topology Ethernet built on twisted-pair cabling is known as 10BaseT (10 Mbps, baseband, twisted-pair cabling)
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