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If you're new to the subject, you may be tempted to dismiss QoS as the network variant of Total Quality Management or some other quality assurance methodology That's not the case QoS is an actual runtime technology, replete with data model architecture, protocols, message formats, algorithms, and commands It is a not-so-distant cousin of routing protocols In fact, QoS is growing into such a substantial technical discipline that it could emerge as an industry niche, much like network security and network management Dozens of QoS definitions are evolving, partly because the words quality and service themselves have been so abused over the years Marry these two trendy words, and confusion really kicks in But a more serious problem is that QoS is a nascent technology, with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) still in the process of defining technical specifications for many important elements of QoS In addition, there are competing commercial agendas for QoS, most notably the conflicting needs of ISPs versus corporate intranets But QoS is a real technology and it can be defined A generalized explanation, that QoS is a collection of methods to differentiate traffic and services, is perhaps too broad A more informative definition might be thatQoS is a collection of runtime processes that actively manage bandwidth to provide committed levels of network service to applications and/or users QoS implements a framework for service policy and action that extends end to end for serviced connections, even across autonomous systems From there, a seemingly endless parade of variation ensues We'll settle for this: QoS is a collection of mechanisms designed to favor some types of traffic over others
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Why Bandwidth Alone Is Not Enough
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Until recently, increasing bandwidth has appeased most network users When things slowed down, network managers simply put in a fatter "pipe" This is called over- provisioning Until recently, overprovisioning has been the most common approach to QoS, especially in local networks, where installing media is much less expensive than upgrading WAN links
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But the amount of raw data that can be moved through a network is no longer the only issue Now, timing and coordination are just as important While it's true that most multimedia applications are bandwidth hogs, many also introduce operational requirements new to IP networks For example, packet delay during a voice-over IP (VoIP) phone call can cause the speakers to talk out of sequence, making the conversation incomprehensible
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Packet delivery delay that causes a signal to lose its timing references is called jitter For users, jitter in VoIP calls makes the calls unacceptable The point here is that interactive, two-way network applications must maintain their sequential integrity above all, even when overall quality isn't especially high We do this now with cell phone technology by tolerating occasional signal fade and persistent background noise The cellular technology remains acceptable because it always maintains at least the sequential integrity of our phone conversations Traditional applications such as e-mail, Web browsing, and FTP aren't much affected by jitter or the other by-products of best-effort IP packet delivery They're "elastic" in that they're not as sensitive to timing issues Even when these transactions slow down, users still perceive the level of service to be sufficient indeed they're usually unaware that a slowdown even took place And when the overall service level slows too much, the network manager can simply install more bandwidth to maintain a desired level of service By contrast, throwing bandwidth at a media application such as VoIP won't necessarily help Even if overprovisioned with a high-bandwidth end-to-end pipe, sudden bursts of traffic would still manifest as jitter Studies demonstrate that users are ten times more likely to remember an occasional service problem than the sustained level of good service surrounding it Network applications vary in their signal delivery requirements The more an application's signal pattern is sensitive to delivery delay, the greater difficulty it has with IP's best-effort service approach (By the way, delay is when a message is delivered intact but slowly; in contrast, jitter is when delay harms message integrity) In the following list, various traffic types are presented in order, from highest tolerance to jitter, to no tolerance: Asynchronous Synchronous Interactive Isochronous Mission-critical Fully elastic; delay causes no effect Delay can cause some effect, usually just slowness Delay annoys and distracts users, but application is still functional Application is only partially functional Application is functionally disabled
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Most traditional Internet applications are asynchronous and, therefore, very tolerant to jitter For example, a user may not like waiting through the 30-second delay for a Web page to download, but the HTTP application still works fine from a functional standpoint Convergence applications aren't so forgiving, although some are more tolerant to the vagaries of IP than others Let's cite some examples of traffic types: NetMeeting is a good example of interactive traffic, where delivery sequence is important but not critical VoIP is truly isochronous traffic because out-of-sequence speech causes information loss, and may even bug users enough to hang up
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Videocasting is another example of isochronous traffic, because each frame must be presented immediately after the other in perfect sequence and in quick succession The classic example of mission-critical traffic is a process-control interrupt instruction to open a safety valve in a nuclear reactor's cooling system Thankfully, mission-critical traffic does not exist on the Internet (At least, we think not) VoIP (also called IP telephony) is hot because of its promise for huge cost savings Also, it has the potential to weave spoken conversation into other applications, where text, graphics, and even financial transactions take place during a phone call Major industry players are betting billions that VoIP will be the next "killer app" that binds all other mass communication onto a single transport platform: the Internet But for our purposes, VoIP is the best illustration of how bandwidth is no longer the only major factor in quality of service An IP telephone conversation doesn't consume significant bandwidth (only about 9 Kbps each way), but the packets must be delivered quickly in order to maintain the conversational integrity Even if you could afford to overconfigure bandwidth, traffic bursts would inevitably result in poor service, because round-trip delivery delays above half a second render VoIP unusable Overprovisioning bandwidth is an impossible dream because of burgeoning consumption Millions of new users are coming online every day, and the level of activity per user is growing as Internet applications take on more and more routine tasks These two factors alone have kept bandwidth consumption apace with advances in bandwidth technology And now convergence is adding a raft of time-sensitive multimedia apps, most of which are bandwidth hogs (VoIP is an exception in this respect) Thus bandwidth is not a panacea for the technical challenges presented by convergence To take the Internet to the next level, IP must be retrofitted to provide reliable network service levels, and the industry is convinced QoS is the answer
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