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In truth, the industry has been using a QoS of sorts in WAN links for years WAN links are more costly and have historically been the primary bottleneck in end-to-end connections Very simply, it's expensive to pull a cable over long distances, across land belonging to others, under streets, and under oceans The only way to cut WAN costs has been to install faster media, or to spread the cost among more users While these measures have decreased WAN costs, long-haul links are still much more expensive than LAN bandwidth The bottleneck problem persists, too Even now, the routine configuration scenario for most companies is to have 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet in campus LANs connected to remote offices via 1544 Mbps T1 links Both problems put intense pressure on the telecom industry to install various QoS mechanisms into their WAN transport technologies, which today are primarily Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) These mechanisms serve as a model for the architects of QoS solutions for the Internet
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Frame Relay is now the de facto standard technology for WANs The technology is popular among remote users who cannot economically justify permanent point-to-point leased lines, but who need to connect to more than one site From the technical standpoint, Frame Relay is a data-link layer protocol that uses a transport protocol based on HDLC (the High-Level Data Link Control protocol) By using HDLC encapsulation, Frame Relay can form multiple virtual circuits within a network cloud a fast and reliable arrangement that can be conveniently shared by otherwise unrelated enterprises
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Frame Relay is especially popular for sites with intermittent data traffic For example, a branch office that needs to talk to the headquarters mainframe in ten-minute spurts several times a day probably couldn't justify the cost of a dedicated link The other option is long-distance dial-up, which tends to be slow, expensive, and unreliable To use a Frame Relay service, the customer need only install a local loop line (either a 56/65 Kbps digital circuit or a T1 circuit) to the Frame Relay network's local access server Everything beyond that point is transparent The challenge for the Frame Relay service provider is to balance the need for high- capacity utilization with the need to provide quality service to all customers Frame Relay works by establishing a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) from end to end when a connection is made To do this, Frame Relay defines a UNI (User-to-Network Interface) interface between the network and the client The UNI maintains signaling between the endpoints by providing interim switches with information sufficient to maintaining proper PVC flow The switches use the UNI signaling to identify the PVC to which a frame belongs, its direction, and its connection state The problem confronting Frame Relay is the "bursty" nature of the traffic it carries A user dials into the network, goes through some setup, blasts a chunk of data through the pipe, and then logs off Frame Relay handles bursty traffic with a service level called Committed Information Rate (CIR), in which the network operator commits to a customer that the PVC will operate at speeds no lower than a certain data rate Like virtually all WAN operators, Frame Relay networks of course oversubscribe bandwidth on the assumption that seldom will all customers burst on simultaneously In fact, Frame Relay network operators have to do this in order to compete and operate profitably Bandwidth congestion is inevitable under this arrangement, and Frame Relay has a safety valve to handle it Frames have a Discard Eligible (DE) bit in the header It's okay for a customer's transmission rate to burst above the CIR, as long as there's excess capacity in the network But when the network is under pressure, the switches begin setting the DE bit in a customer's frames above the CIR, and this makes the frames eligible for discard
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This practice is called marking Frame Relay uses the DE bit as a place to mark excess frames, when necessary, to make good on CIR commitments to other users Customers love Frame Relay because they get a bargain when traffic's slow, yet are assured service quality during peak times A CIR and other such commitments are called service level agreements, or SLAs An SLA can consist of a single metric such as a CIR, but multiple metrics are more common For example, an ISP and a customer might have an SLA that commits to guaranteed minimums for packet loss, average latency, and average available bandwidth When confronted with excess traffic, Frame Relay doesn't simply start dropping data frames Another mechanism is used first, to ameliorate traffic congestion When a switch in a Frame Relay network starts to become congested, the switch begins setting two particular bits in the frames passing through it: It sets the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) bit to notify originating nodes of traffic queue build-up, so that the originating node can begin throttling back The switch also sets the Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) bit to alert receiving nodes of potential future delays If congestion continues to build beyond a second threshold, only
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then does the switch begin dropping DE-marked data frames Frame Relay congestion control is quick because the FECN and BECN mechanisms are triggered at the actual moment and place of initial congestion, and the alerts are explicit notifications This ingenious Frame Relay arrangement reflects the essence of QoS: users can count on a certain level of service being consistently available Yet, behind the scenes, the mechanisms also work to juggle user requirements, the goal being to yield more aggregate bandwidth than would otherwise be available from a finite resource (the Frame Relay network's bandwidth)
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