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Convergence of the world onto IP for internetworking is a done deal, and the same goes for convergence onto Ethernet as the de facto LAN standard But the convergence of virtually all communications media (telephone, television, and radio) onto IP is still somewhat problematic because, as discussed, IP by its very nature is antagonistic to the determinism of QoS
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The best-effort philosophy of IP is the fundamental result of the protocol's connection- less nature When you send a packet, IP decides what route will be taken to the packet's destination This contrasts sharply with transports such as Frame Relay and ATM, which operate by setting up virtual circuits to dedicate network resources to connections Connectionless IP, of course, has no such capability In addition to its connectionless, best-effort architecture, there are other reasons why IP QoS is a tough engineering proposition: Network provisioning is a zero-sum game Because bandwidth is a finite resource, every bps of capacity dedicated to one connection is consumed at the expense of all other simultaneous connections QoS only finesses bandwidth; it doesn't create it Users will always take as much bandwidth as they can consume as long as they don't have to pay extra for it To be effective, QoS needs a way to authenticate users and a way to record utilization for billing These authentication and accounting mechanisms must be unobtrusive and resource efficient To remain universal, the Internet must be careful not to allocate so much bandwidth to inelastic applications that traditional (time-independent) applications such as HTTP and FTP are left wanting To succeed, IP QoS must build a suite of capabilities that systematically reduce complexity in identifying and allocating bandwidth resources This isn't to say that QoS is an impossible dream As a project, IP QoS is ultimately feasible because Most of the theoretical groundwork has been laid, and the IETF is well into the process of defining real-world technical specifications for missing QoS elements Frame Relay and ATM provide a real-world QoS experience base on which to build In light of the immense profit potential at stake, full-blown QoS will eventually be realized Money tends to have a coalescing effect on argumentative engineers and uncooperative vendors Given how well ATM and Frame Relay have done in WAN links, end-to-end QoS is now mostly a matter of implementing QoS within IP networks The remainder of this chapter outlines the work done in this field to date It's reasonable to assume that whatever is developed for IP QoS will be mapped back into ATM, Frame Relay, and other important non-IP networking protocols
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QoS Fundamentals
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Certain IP QoS mechanisms have been in place for some time, but none powerful enough to handle end-to-end QoS on its own Existing QoS mechanisms are manifested largely in the form of operating system commands Cisco has led the way by implementing several QoS commands into its IOS operating system (we'll review them in action later) In addition, the IETF and other standards-setting bodies have busied themselves laying out broader QoS technologies Until these superstructures are finally put into place, however, existent IP QoS commands will remain largely unused Before we go over these mechanisms, a review of QoS fundamentals will help put things in their proper context
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Two Kinds of QoS
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There are two basic kinds of QoS, and they differ sharply: Prioritization Individual packets are treated differently according to their assigned service class Resource reservation A connection is allocated a certain amount of bandwidth negotiated with routers and switches along its path Simple prioritizationQoS is packet based In other words, the treatment the packet deserves is in one way or another signified inside the packet itself Although all QoS is priority driven, prioritization QoS is distinct because its implementation is constrained to a device inspecting packets In other words, routers apply prioritization independent of other routers
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Reserved connections, in contrast, are far more complex Reservation schemes must get all the routers along a connection's path to agree on a QoS regimen before transmission can begin Moreover, the path itself must be defined before the reservations are made In addition, it may be necessary for reserved-path bandwidth to make real-time adjustments to changing operating conditions, further adding to complexity
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That's not the case with packet-priority QoS, however If operating conditions are changed when packets from another flow with the same or higher priority enter the same router, the original flow's packets are simply adjusted in its queue As you'll see, some priority-based QoS mechanisms work by forming multiple output queues Reserving bandwidth, on the other hand, requires all devices in the path to converse and collectively arrive at a QoS service level commitment Put another way, containing QoS in the packet itself does away with the need to establish and monitor connection flows across routers, across routing areas, and even across autonomous system boundaries (Think of an autonomous system as a collection of routers under a single administrative authority using a common routing protocol)
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