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A flow is a stream of packets moving in a single direction between two end-host IP addresses identified by a TCP or UDP network application port number When a packet stream travels back in the other direction between that same end-host pair, it constitutes a separate flow (because the "from-to" IP address pair is reversed) Frequently, there are multiple simultaneous flows running between a host pair For example, a browser can run several flows at once To keep them separate, multiple flows moving in one direction between a host pair are distinguished by port number
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Flows are fundamental to QoS because, for every packet stream, they indicate the where (the path connecting the host pair), the when (the connection's sequence and direction), and the why (the application being run) Flows are identified using some or all of the following packet data elements: Source host address The network address of the originating host (specific to a layer-3 protocol such as IP) Destination host address The network address of the receiving host (also specific to a layer-3 protocol such as IP) Protocol Network and transport protocols such as IP, TCP, and UDP Source protocol port Network application protocol from the source host, such as HTTP and FTP Destination protocol port Network application protocol dependent on the destination host network address Source device interface Network interface through which the traffic entered the device, usually a router Any combination of these flow-definition criteria is called a tuple Those experienced with programming will recognize a tuple as a data object made up of two or more components QoS functions use tuples to identify individual flows
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All flows between a host pair during an arbitrary time period constitute a connection When flows are aggregated into connections, it simplifies the task of service level management by reducing the number of required flow-management instructions Connections are also called sessions, the latter term being more often used in the context of the people using the connection Flow identification is the most rudimentary QoS enabler because it tells network devices what connection a packet belongs to, and therefore what service level to apply (if any)
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Stateless vs Stateful QoS
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QoS implemented on a per-device basis is by nature stateless This kind of QoS (usually some variant of a prioritization scheme) works by holding a set of rules in router memory and matching packet headers to the rules This takes some work to set up and some machine overhead to operate Stateless, local QoS of this type doesn't scale well into large internetworks It tends to fall apart due to inconsistencies in rules sets and because of the substantial administrative overhead usually required A second kind of stateless QoS modifies the simple priority-queuing approach In this approach, which might be called transitive stateless QoS, routers change the content of a packet's header as it travels through the internetwork Examples of message unit "marking" are Frame Relay's Discard Eligible (DE) bit and ATM's (CLP) bit, discussed earlier But those mechanisms mark message units (frames and cells, respectively) only for selective treatment under stress load conditions IP can do what might be called "transitive stateless" packet marking to signify a preferential treatment value (as far as queuing priority) instead of a "discardability" value As the packet travels into various layers of an internetwork from the access layer into the distribution layer, and then into the core layer the priority value can be changed according to a user-configured parameter In this arrangement, the information needed to determine a queuing action is simply read from a field within the header The router doesn't have to perform a painstaking match against a rules set It's a faster and simpler procedure, as depicted in Figure 15-2
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Figure 15-2: Stateful QoS, and the two kinds of stateless QoS Resource reservation is a stateful form of QoS As illustrated in Figure 15-2, a flow state is defined within the sequence of routers along the path, and then the packets are marked as being part of a flow in the reserved path This "connection path stateful" approach is more intelligent and presumably more reliable because it operates on a per-flow basis There are many concerns, however, about the computational overhead needed to pull it off and potential latency the procedure might introduce to networks This is because the flow's path must first be determined, and then QoS contracts for the flow must be successfully negotiated with every device along that path If that can't be done, the same process must be attempted for an alternate path
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