insert barcode in excel 2016 The Combined Traffic-Shaping Approach in Software

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The Combined Traffic-Shaping Approach
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A third form of traffic shaping is to combine leaky and token buckets within a single configuration Combined shaping works by first conditioning incoming traffic through the leaky bucket queuing mechanism, and then sending it through a token bucket The leaky bucket classifies traffic for its correspondent token bucket simply by assigning a packet stream to pass through that token bucket, as depicted in Figure 15-6
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Figure 15-6: Combined traffic-shaping mechanisms enable more granular traffic control Slower admission rates could be set for lower-priority traffic types (type B in this example) by directing such traffic from the input queue to the slower of the two leaky buckets This combined approach gives more granular control over traffic by first freeing up bandwidth for the priority traffic, and also by allowing the assignment of aggregate throughput volumes and maximum burst rates for fast and slow traffic classes One could configure as many combinations as desired the limit being router overhead incurred for packet assignment and additional output queues Because it's only a network admission-control tool, traffic shaping alone can't deliver true QoS Used in conjunction with other tools, however, traffic shapers help condition traffic for bandwidth priority and predictability
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Configuring Traffic Shaping
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Let's take a look at how Cisco incorporated traffic shaping into its IOS Cisco uses two types of traffic shaping: Generic traffic shaping (GTS) GTS uses token bucket to shape the traffic output to match that of a particular interface or link Once it leaves the token bucket(s) queue, the traffic must go through another queuing method if congestion still exists GTS is configured on a per-interface basis, and the queuing method is WFQ Frame Relay traffic shaping (FRTS) FRTS is applied on a per-DLCI basis and doesn't support WFQ Instead, CQ, PQ, or FIFO must be used as the queuing method The most basic implementation of GTS is when it is configured for all traffic leaving an interface In the interface configuration mode, enter this command: Router(config-if)#traffic-shape rate 5000000 56000 128000 Here, the bit rate is set to 5 Mbps with a burst size of 56 Kbps and a maximum burst size of 128 Kbps Configurations that are more complex can use access lists first to identify the traffic, and then selectively apply a specific shaping profile for that traffic
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Up to this point, we have described QoS methods that handle prioritized packets in a device-bydevice fashion Each network device acts independently and makes it own decision about the traffic passing through it If any device along the path from client to server isn't using QoS, it creates the possibility that QoS won't be delivered Another QoS method aims to remove this shortcoming and set up QoS parameters along the full length of the communication from one computer to the other
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The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
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RSVP delivers QoS on a per-flow basis As its name implies, RSVP "reserves" certain bandwidth
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resources along a path connecting source and destination devices in order to ensure a minimum level of QoS Applications running on IP end systems will use RSVP to indicate the nature of the packet streams they want to receive, thereby "reserving" bandwidth that can support the required QoS This is done by defining parameters for such characteristics as minimum bandwidth, maximum delay jitter, maximum burst, and the like RSVP is a nascent technology Interest in RSVP has grown considerably in light of recently emerging convergence applications such as IP telephony and videoconferencing The IETF and a number of vendors have devoted considerable resources to its development An ambitious project, RSVP provides its own signaling to converse with devices for negotiating reserved QoS, and for monitoring flows once underway This full-fledged protocol has a suite of messages, rules, and algorithms to integrate devices into a QoS service RSVP is complicated It defines a sender and a receiver host for each flow The sender sends a PATH message downstream to the receiver; the Path collects a roster of devices along the route Once the Path message is received, the receiver sends a request called a RESV message back upstream along the same path to the RSVP sender The RESV message specifies parameters for the desired bandwidth characteristics Once all the interim devices are signed on to support the QoS levels, the session can begin When the connection is terminated, an explicit teardown mechanism is used to free up resources on the reserved devices The RSVP process is illustrated in Figure 15-7
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Figure 15-7: RSVP uses a sophisticated, self-contained messaging system to reserve bandwidth Route aggregation partially ameliorates RSVP complexity and overhead For example, if thousands of RSVP receiver hosts were to receive a multicast (say, a Web TV videocast), the RESV messages would be rolled up and combined at aggregation points Conversely, only one stream would be sent down from the videocaster, replicated at aggregation points to worm out to all endpoint destinations RSVP's large number of potential variables implies such complexity that it resembles ATM, but without the determinism In light of this complexity, and the overhead likely in configuring and operating bandwidth reserved in this way, some experts openly question whether RSVP is even feasible It seems likely that advances in hardware speed will solve the overhead problem The complexity issue can be solved only through sustained R&D and standards-setting efforts Those efforts are well underway and, if anything, intensifying under pressure from the demand for multimedia over IP applications
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