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Routing protocols assist routers with the task of path selection through a network Some of the most popular routing protocols supported by Cisco routers are RIP (Routing Information Protocol) versions 1 and 2, the Cisco proprietary protocol IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol), EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP, also Cisco proprietary), and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) See 3 for more information on routing protocols Essentially, a routing protocol keeps a routing table that tells the router how to get a data packet from one network segment to another Routers then share their routing tables with neighboring routers who are utilizing the same routing protocol They do not, however, share tables with routers running dissimilar routing protocols (for instance, RIP shares only with RIP, IGRP shares with IGRP, and so on) NoteYou can define multiple routing protocols on a router This increases overhead in the form of CPU and bandwidth utilization, but it allows you to keep routing tables for all possible routes in case you have devices that do not support a certain routing protocol In this way, the tables are propagated throughout the network, allowing the routers along the way to choose paths based on availability If an interface or medium along the way is disabled for some reason, the routers around it will sense this and will detour data Here we will look at RIP, one of the simplest and most common routing protocols
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RIP is a basic routing protocol that sends its entire routing table at regular intervals (30 seconds) to neighboring routers This is an effective routing protocol except on larger networks, on which it has some limitations For example, because the entire table is sent regardless of changes, you may see vital bandwidth being used to send unnecessary updates RIP2 solves this by sending only when there is a change to the routing table This saves a lot of bandwidth, especially over time For a smaller network, however, RIP will suffice NoteWindows NT supports RIP and, therefore, can use the tables for its own routing decisions This, of course, would be used on machines with more than one NIC, and is not generally recommended The use of routing protocols is a global configuration, meaning they are not interface specific When you enable a routing protocol, you enable it on all the interfaces on that router The configuration of RIP is simple: router(config)#router rip router(config)#network 10000
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The network command specifies that RIP should send its routing table updates to all networks in the 10000 range
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Now let's see how all these configuration commands work together Figure A-3 represents a simple network setup using a Cisco router This router has two Ethernet interfaces and two Token Ring interfaces One of each has been configured, while the others have been shut down Additionally, we will set up OSPF as the routing protocol so that routes can be shared with other routers See 5 for more information about OSPF
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Figure A-3: Using a Cisco router to connect two LANs Let's first examine the configuration that enables this network to function You'll see the same commands we put to work earlier to set up the interfaces and get the router to function We have used OSPF as our routing protocol, which requires you to set up the area number (Area 0 is the default area) Here is the command: router(config)#router ospf 1 where 1 is simply a process identifier There's only one additional configuration statement: router(config)#network 10000 0255255255 area 0 OSPF uses areas to define the parts of a network its routing decisions should affect All other devices "belonging to" area 0 would receive this router's table You'll also notice the use of an inverse mask The inverse mask does not delineate the network and host portion of the address, as in a subnet mask Rather, it defines what part of the network address (10000) should be considered part of the area A zero means it must match to be included in the area Therefore, in this example, any address starting with 10 will be considered part of area 0 Note in the following example configuration that there are two interfaces not currently configured: router#show configuration Using 2634 out of 129016 bytes ! version 112 service password-encryption no service udp-small-servers no service tcp-small-servers ! hostname router ! boot system flash enable secret 5 $1$XtLe$qObJLGEyCmyqeBvsUEdQl/ enable password 7 094047071C45131D0C0B0D79 ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 10111 2552552550 media-type 10BaseT ! interface Ethernet1
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no ip address shutdown ! interface TokenRing0 ip address 101112 2552552550 ring-speed 16 ! interface TokenRing1 no ip address shutdown ! router ospf 1 network 10000 0255255255 area 0 ! ip http server snmp-server community public RO snmp-server community private RW snmp-server host 101113 password ! line con 0 exec-timeout 0 0 line aux 0 transport input all line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 0 0 password 7 051D1506734E4B login ! end router#
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