barcode font excel 2016 OSI Layers and Protocols in Software

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OSI Layers and Protocols
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The most common model for describing data communications is the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model This model was defined to provide a framework for examining the roles of each protocol within the TCP/IP suite Each protocol of the TCP/IP suite belongs to a layer of the OSI model
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The OSI Model
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The OSI model is based on a seven-layer architecture, each layer having a specific responsibility Communication support services are provided from layers 1 through 4, and application support services from layers 5 through 7 Typically, layers 5 through 7 are only implemented in software closest to the end user Figure B-2 illustrates the generic function of each layer and some questions that each layer might answer
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Figure B-2: The OSI seven-layer model Each layer of the OSI model operates within the capabilities and limitations of the layers below it and provides services for the layers above it As a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) is transferred through the network, it passes through all seven layers Each layer adds a header to the PDU as it goes down the sending stack, and each layer removes a header as the PCU goes up the receiving stack The OSI model has become the reference by which most protocols are compared
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TCP/IP in the OSI Model
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The TCP/IP protocol suite specifically utilizes three layers of the OSI model: the network, transport, and application layers Each of these layers provides services for the next layer and relies on services provided by the layers before it The physical and data-link layers provide services for the network layer protocols, including TCP/IP The TCP/IP layers are defined in Figure B-3
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Figure B-3: TCP/IP protocol transmission
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Network Layer
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One of the primary services supported by the network layer is the implementation of routable addresses The network layer consists of two primary elements: the network, which provides routing information; and the host, which identifies the node within the network The network layer provides the following services for the transport layer: Routing Geographical identification of destination Quality of Service Preferential treatment of specific traffic Segmenting Fragmentation of message to allow for transmission on various link services Security Restriction of traffic to specific networks In TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol (IP) carries out the role of the network protocol IP is discussed in more detail later in this appendix
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Transport Layer
The transport layer controls the quality and reliability of the data transmission Packets are sequenced and acknowledged at this layer The transport layer establishes a communication path with the destination node and can be responsible for end-to-end data integrity This integrity is maintained by the ACK (acknowledge) and NAK (negative acknowledge) service ACK is a message sent to respond to the preceding message arriving at its destination without error NAK is a response to show receipt of a corrupted packet of information The sending transport node is primarily responsible for recovery from data loss A timer is set for each message sent, and failure to respond within the set time results in retransmission of the data User Datagram Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol are transport layer protocols These protocols are discussed in further detail later in this appendix
Application Layer
This layer is the highest level in the protocol-layering model The application layer is not the application itself that is doing the communication The application layer provides the following services: Verification of other party's identification and availability If appropriate, authentication of either the message sender or receiver, or both Verification that resources necessary for communication exist Negotiation of agreement at both ends regarding error recovery procedures, data integrity, and privacy Protocol and data syntax rules at the application level Several protocols make up the application layer Following are some of the more common ones:
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