barcode font excel 2016 Relative Throughput for Collision-Based Protocols in Software

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Relative Throughput for Collision-Based Protocols
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Collision-based LANs function entirely differently than Token Ring LANs Instead of passing a token that allows a station to send a frame, the collision-based protocol places a frame on the medium when the protocol senses that the medium is not being used When two stations get the idea to send a frame at the same time, their frames collide, and both stations back off for a random amount of time before resending their frames To get at the relative utilization in this arrangement, we have to look at the probability that the wire is being used First, if each station has the same probability of successfully capturing the wire for transmission, then the probability that a single station has captured the wire decreases as the number of active stations increases Also, the interval between contentions decreases That is, the station is less likely to grab command over the wire; and once it does, it is more likely to be interrupted by another station Therefore, the maximum throughput for collision-based protocols occurs when there are only two stations on a subnet This cuts down on contention for the medium and reduces the contention interval Figure 3-5 illustrates the theoretical throughput for token-passing LANs vs collision-based LANs, for two different values of a
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Figure 3-5: Normalized throughput for collision- and token-based protocols as the number of active stations increases to 20
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Collision vs Token Passing Protocols
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You can see that token-passing protocols increase their utilization of the transmission media as more active stations are added These protocols are, nonetheless, still susceptible to the problems associated with an increasing value of a as the physical size of the ring grows Notice that the use of the available capacity is very poor when there are only a couple of stations This is the result of the stations' waiting until they can transmit again (waiting for the token to come around) The efficiency of collision-based protocols obviously suffers as more stations attempt to transmit frames Increasing the speed of the protocol is one way to put off contention Upgrading to 100 Mbps Ethernet from 10 Mbps Ethernet would shorten the amount of time the frame is on the wire and decrease the likelihood of a collision Another strategy is to reduce the length of the segment By breaking up large Ethernet segments, you reduce the bit length of the segment as well as the number of active stations To get the most out of an Ethernet segment, you should break up the segment until you have only two stations on a segment When one transmits, the other is receiving, and vice versa This is essentially what happens when you connect a single device through a switch port the device and the switch can carry on conversations without having to contend with other devices
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In the previous section, we discussed the lower-level protocols, which form the foundation on which the upper-level protocols run As with the lower-level protocols, there is usually more than one upper-level protocol at work in any large network Network administration is easier if there is only one protocol to manage, but the requirements of businesses and applications have made multiprotocol networks commonplace It is important to familiarize yourself with the various beasts you might encounter in working with these networks This section gives you an overview of the primary protocols used in a typical Microsoft/Cisco networking environment
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One of the definitions of protocol in a dictionary is that it's a set of rules governing how a process or function works Upper-level networking protocols fit this definition In the case of TCP/IP, a whole group of protocols work closely together to form the most widely used set of protocols in network communications today, called the TCP/IP protocol suite The utility of the OSI reference model starts to come to light at this point As you have read, a variety of lower-level protocols are used to transfer data If each combination of lower- and upperlayer protocols were a specific proprietary implementation, it would result in a rigid, incompatible network structure The task to develop products that could interact while retaining their unique operating principles would be extremely costly and complex, if not impossible Fortunately, since each layer is concerned with only the layer above and below it, it is possible to mix and match upper- and lower-level protocols That is, you can have IP running over Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI You can see that the communications requirements for allowing layers to talk to each other requires a modular design TCP/IP was developed with this very principle in mind by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and was implemented on the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) The TCP/IP suite of protocols have been deemed Internet standards
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by the Internet Architecture Board TCP/IP operates on the upper five layers of the OSI model The lowest layer on which it operates is layer 3, the network layer Layers 1 and 2 are able to understand a single LAN but are incapable of dealing with multiple LANs Enter the network layer; it allows lower-layer protocols to transport data to other networks This provides a solution for the entire internetwork, whether you have Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, wide area networks (WANs), or all of these One of TCP/IP's strengths is its ability to work with very large networks This explains its widespread acceptance on the Internet and in enterprise computing A few of the many protocols included in the TCP/IP protocol suite are listed in the following table We'll concentrate on the ones at the network and transport layers ARP FTP HTTP ICMP IP NFS RIP RPC SMTP SNMP TCP Telnet TFTP UDP Address Resolution Protocol File Transfer Protocol HyperText Transfer Protocol Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Protocol Network File System Routing Information Protocol Remote Procedure Call Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Transport Control Protocol Character-oriented terminal emulation Trivial File Transfer Protocol User Datagram Protocol
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It's been estimated that Cisco products make up 80% of the Internet's backbone, so it's not surprising that almost all Cisco products include highly robust support for the TCP/IP protocol suite Windows NT/2000 also includes built-in support for TCP/IP When Windows and Cisco meet at the network, it's almost always via TCP/IP or IPX/SPX
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