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The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a member of the TCP/IP protocol suite and is mentioned here because you will see it at work throughout this book It runs at the application layer of the OSI model and is used to help manage TCP/IP-based networks The intelligence for an SNMP-managed network lies in the Network Management Station (NMS) The NMS polls the network devices, or SNMP agents These agents keep information about themselves in the form of a Management Information Base (MIB) The MIB provides a standard representation of what information is available for the SNMP agents and where it is stored From the MIBs, the NMS extracts and keeps a database of all the information about all the SNMP agents it is managing This method allows for low overhead on the SNMP agents themselves, reducing the complexity and, therefore, the cost of implementation
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Hewlett-Packard's Openview is an example of an SNMP management station Windows systems are capable of acting as SNMP agents that is, they can share information about themselves in a MIB format that can be polled from an SNMP management station Most Cisco devices, as well, can share information about their configuration and utilization via SNMP You will learn more about SNMP and network management in 8
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Routing Protocols
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As you recall from earlier in this chapter, it is important to limit the number of devices sharing the same subnet This reduces collisions and increases utilization However, once a destination is beyond the local subnet or broadcast zone, a device acting as a router must be used to forward the packets to the correct network If internetworks consisted of only a handful of networks, this would not be an issue But when many dozens of networks are being fed from many routers, the routers must be able to communicate among themselves about all possible destinations Moreover, the routers must be able to update their route tables dynamically, as networks and/or routers become available or unavailable Routing protocols keep a recent view of the network and all the available routes within that network These protocols enable the routers they serve to keep track of all the other devices in the network, the state of those devices, and the best routes available for passing data along the network
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Distance-Vector Routing
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There are two primary types of routing protocol: distance-vector and link-state The first routing protocols used the distance-vector method A network device using distance-vector routing periodically broadcasts data packets to its immediate neighbors, typically every 60 to 90 seconds These packets contain all the information the device currently has about the network's topology To determine the best path, distance-vector routing protocols typically use information about link speeds and hop counts to make their routing decisions The hop count is increased by 1 for each router that must be traversed The number of hops to the destination is considered the router's metric or cost to get to the destination After receiving this information, routers incorporate it in their routing tables before passing the information along to their neighbors Through this periodic checking and broadcasting, which is performed at regular intervals regardless of whether the network has changed, all routers are kept updated with the correct network addresses for all devices on the network, as well as with the best route for transferring data between any two devices If a device several hops away from a sending router fails, it can take time for the sending router to discover the fact In larger networks, this slow convergence of route tables can lead to misdirected network traffic and cause further erroneous entries in the route information propagated throughout the network Routing protocols that use the distance-vector method are simple to configure and deploy As networks grow larger in size, however, the periodic announcements used by them may cause excessive traffic on the network Typically, distance-vector protocols are used on networks with fewer than 50 routers; most larger networks employ other routing protocols The advantages and disadvantages of distance-vector protocols are summarized here:
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