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Easy to configure Widely accepted Lower resource requirements on the router
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Slow to converge 15-hop count limit No variable-length subnetting
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The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is probably the most common distance-vector routing protocol Cisco developed its own protocol called the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), which was later improved and called Enhanced IGRP or EIGRP
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Link-state protocols were developed to address many of the limitations of the distance-vector protocols Link-state protocols can adapt more quickly to changes in network topology and are thus better for managing large, complex networks Link-state protocols communicate changes in network topology to other devices in an incremental manner When a network link changes state (up to down, or down to up), a notification called a link state advertisement (LSA) is flooded throughout the network All routers note the change and recompute their routes accordingly using their link-state algorithm This method is more reliable, easier to debug, and consumes less bandwidth than the distance-vector method On the other hand, it is more complex and more demanding of CPU resources and memory As the size of the network increases, the memory and CPU utilization required to run link-state routing protocols becomes a primary consideration in network design The advantages and disadvantages of link-state protocols are summarized here:
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Fast convergence of route tables No hop-count limit Variable-length subnet masking (defined in the section "VLSM" under the main heading "TCP/IP," later in this chapter) Reduced bandwidth consumption (fewer updates)
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Examples of link-state protocols include the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol, which is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite; the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol, a router-to-router protocol that is part of the OSI suite; and the NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP), Novell's link-state protocol for IPX networks
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector protocol that uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm RIP routers usually broadcast a routing update message containing known routes every 30 seconds A timer is started when a route is learned from a routing update message A route that hasn't been learned again within 180 seconds is removed from the router's table This leads to a "chatty" protocol Try to imagine a dozen routers sending their entire route table to neighboring routers every 30 seconds
RIP's Limitations
Because RIP cannot detect or correct routing loops (explained in the following section), routes learned with RIP that exceed 15 hops are treated as invalid and unreachable This means any given source and destination on your network cannot be separated by more than 15 hops This hop-count limit can make RIP impractical for large networks Another limitation is a long convergence time This is the time it takes for a network to stabilize after a change in one of the networks For example, if a router in a 10-hop network goes down, it could take five minutes (30 seconds times 10 hops) for the most distant router to learn of it All the while, that distant router has been sending packets as if the downed router were still up
Removing Routing Loops
Routing loops occur when routers send packets from router to router and never actually deliver the
packets to the destination LAN Routing loops can be frustrating and difficult to troubleshoot and can wreak havoc on a network To eliminate routing loops and decreasing convergence times, RIP can use the split-horizon method with poison-reverse updating These are schemes for controlling the way a router advertises a route to the neighbor from which it learned the route In split-horizon updating, routes are not sent back to the router that advertised the routes initially For example, if router A announces its available routes to router B, router B does not send this information back to router A in an update It is never useful to send information about a route back to the router that generated the information in the first place Split-horizon updating eliminates routing loops that occur between two adjacent routers Split-horizon with poison-reverse updating eliminates routing loops that can occur when you have many routers It works by temporarily inactivating routes that have increased in hop count by more than 1 An increasing hop count for the same route indicates a routing loop, and temporarily removing or inactivating the route will stop the looping If the route continues to loop, then the route is declared invalid and is not used
RIP Support in Microsoft NT/2000
Windows NT/2000 servers can participate in a RIP environment RIP is installed as a service and requires very little configuration To install RIP for Windows NT 4, load the software from the Network Properties applet To open the applet, right-click the Network Neighborhood icon, or get to the applet from the Control Panel Click the Services tab and then Add This brings up a list of network services that haven't been installed on the system, as illustrated in Figure 3-6
Figure 3-6: Adding the RIP service in Windows NT 4 Starting RIP under Windows 2000 is done via the Management Console for RRAS, as described for OSPF in the upcoming section This implementation of RIP has the following features: Uses the split-horizon and poison-reverse methods of updates Allows for route filters, so you can choose which networks to announce or to accept announcements from Can filter packets based on IP ports Works with IP and IPX for NetWare Uses a GUI and command-line interface with scripting capabilities Can be managed remotely Works with virtual private networking (VPNs) using the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol As networks grow, the limitations of RIP become the driving force to adopt a link-state routing protocol Once a network has exceeded 10 hops or approximately 50 routers, upgrading to a link-
state protocol should be considered OSPF is a primary candidate for IP networks because of its universal acceptance and scalability TipIf you have a single NIC on your Windows server and a single router on your local network, do not enable routing Simply define a default gateway in your server, pointing to the IP address of the router Even if you have multiple Cisco routers, you may employ HSRP (Hot Standby Routing Protocol) between the routers The server will continue to use a simple default gateway
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