Supernetting in Software

Creation Data Matrix in Software Supernetting

Supernetting
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Supernetting is, in concept, the opposite of subnetting In subnetting we add bits to the default mask to increase the number of networks However, in some instances, it makes sense to decrease the number of networks For example, let's say an organization has been given a contiguous block of Class C address such as these: 20998224 20998225 20998226 20998227 A Class C address has the default mask of 2552552550 This means that the above addresses are all separate networks However, the company may want to treat all the addresses as part of the same network for routing purposes In that event, a subnet mask of 2552552240 would be used so that all the above addresses are in the same network
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IPX/SPX
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Novell's IPX/SPX protocol suite is similar to TCP/IP, in that it is a popular protocol and can be routed over many networks Like TCP/IP, IPX/SPX must have a representation of devices on each LAN and an addressing scheme that can segregate among LANs This section explains how IPX/SPX accomplishes this
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The Node Number
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Each device on any given Novell LAN has a unique node number a 48-bit number typically taken from the MAC address of that device's LAN interface Since these MAC addresses are unique, you are almost guaranteed to generate a unique number Usually these numbers are expressed as 12 hexadecimal values, each comprising 4 bits per node An example is 00-00-A0-00-38-00 which is displayed on Cisco routers as 0000-a0000-3800 A device's node number does not have to be assigned to the MAC address of its NIC You can manually change it to any 48-bit number you wish, as long as it is unique for that given LAN There may be circumstances that dictate using a manually chosen and entered node number One such case is on routers If a LAN segment has more than one LAN interface, the node address of the first LAN interface will, by default, be the node address of the others You will probably want to change one of these addresses to some other, unique value
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The Network Number
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For moving traffic to devices located on other LANs, there must be a way to identify and route to those machines based on something more than their unique node number IPX/SPX uses the two-tiered approach, like TCP/IP Where the node number defines a device on a LAN, the network number describes which LAN is the destination for the packets Unlike the node number, the network number is not automatically generated; it must be chosen in advance and manually configured on each interface of all the routers This number is a 32-bit number that is typically represented, together with the node number, as the networknode This completely
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describes the address of each device on a network All devices on a given LAN segment share the same network number However, NetWare servers have a different internal network number than the local network number This is because the NetWare server acts as source address for many NetWare services NetWare Servers need the internal IPX network number to perform functions related to the server and give the server a unique identity If, for example, a node with an address of 0000A0003800 is on the network 500, the node's complete IPX network address would be 5000000A0003800 Note that the network number for the LAN segment and the internal network numbers must all be unique, throughout the enterprise TipLay out your IPX network numbering scheme in advance, and maintain accurate records of which numbers are used Duplicate addresses will cause substantial problems on your network In addition, you may choose to use network numbers of different length for the Internal network number and the LAN segment number This makes the server addresses easy to identify for troubleshooting or filtering, if needed Of course, there is nothing to preclude the simultaneous existence of TCP/IP and IPX/SPX on the same client The client will need to have the proper drivers and protocol stack to run each protocol suite Since each can use Ethernet and Token Ring, this scenario is common Multiprotocol routers must be used, and configured to route and share routing information with other routers for each protocol Although this configuration adds to the complexity of the network and cost of management, it is often deployed to provide the most compatibility with legacy systems or during an interim cut-over period
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This chapter has introduced many essential topics for Cisco internetworking You have learned about the OSI seven-layer model and its importance, as evident by its permeation into networking hardware and software We discussed some of the most popular lower-level technologies used to transport bits across the wire from device to device The upper-level protocols were covered here as well This information will be useful when it comes time for you to actually configure and manage your network devices Routing protocols also play a crucial role in the efficiency of any large network The most common routing protocols were discussed in this chapter, and in 5 you will have the opportunity to see how to configure routing protocols to work in a laboratory environment WAN transports and the most common addressing schemes are the common foundation of a network Having a good understanding of these core components will assist in building and managing a high-quality network Knowledge of these essentials will support your understanding of the information in 5, 6, and all the chapters in Part 3
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