using barcode in excel 2010 6: Setting Up Switches and VLANs in Software

Maker Data Matrix in Software 6: Setting Up Switches and VLANs

6: Setting Up Switches and VLANs
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Overview
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The centralization of servers and services, plus bandwidth-hungry applications like audio and video, all contribute to the growing congestion on LANs Switches provide a solution to alleviate bandwidth congestion, by reducing collisions and by controlling broadcasts and flooding They can also segment traffic by using virtual LANs (VLANs) Users can be grouped together by department or by functional team and assigned to a VLAN The communication within these groups becomes isolated on their VLAN, eliminating their specific traffic from the rest of the network and thus reducing bandwidth congestion Communication among VLANs is enabled with a routing or switching device operating at the IP level, layer 3 of the OSI model This chapter provides an overview of switches and VLANs and the tools used to configure them
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Switches
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Switching is a technology that reduces congestion You can purchase switches that support Ethernet, Token Ring, and other media types When upgrading from 10 Mbps Ethernet to 100 Mbps Ethernet, acquiring the compatible hubs, network interface cards (NICs), and cabling may be costly Switches provide an alternative solution to improve network performance by eliminating contention for the same bandwidth Prior to the introduction of switches, connections from each workstation were run to the network closet and then typically terminated in a hub or bridge Switches became popular in the mid-1990s as a way to create smaller collision domains on LANs These smaller collision domains reduce
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contention for bandwidth on a LAN and thus improve performance A switch behaves similarly to a bridge but offers higher performance
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Hubs, Bridges, and Switches
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When a hub receives packets, it regenerates the signals out each port A hub does not have the capability to send the packet only out the destination port All the connected stations appear to be on the same wire Therefore, to make sure the traffic reaches its destination, the hub sends the traffic out on every port Figure 6-1 illustrates the flow of traffic without a switch
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Figure 6-1: Traffic flow without a switch A bridge is a device that connects two or more LAN segments A table of known destinations is created on a bridge by using the MAC addresses of the datagrams that flow through the bridge When a datagram passes through, it will be dropped if the destination is on the same interface as the source; or transmitted to the destination interface; or flooded to all interfaces if the destination is not contained in the table The most common LAN medium is Ethernet Prior to a host's transmitting on an Ethernet segment, the host checks to see if data is currently being transmitted If the network is in use, transmission is deferred Often two hosts check at the same time, see that the network is clear, and simultaneously send data This results in a collision, and each host enters a back-off phase and retransmits later Figure 6-2 demonstrates Ethernet collisions
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Figure 6-2: Collisions on an Ethernet segment Unlike a hub, each port on a switch or bridge is its own collision domain A bridge is a store-andforward device This means it will collect the complete frame, determine the destination port, prepare the frame, calculate a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error-detection scheme, and then transmit the frame Switches are similar to bridges, except they usually have a higher port density and operate at much faster speeds than a bridge A switch, like the bridge, can act as a store-and-forward device and has the added bonus of opting to use cut-through processing In cut-through processing, the switch
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first looks at the destination address of the frame, determines the outgoing port, and then immediately starts sending bits to the outgoing port This is a much faster method, resulting in lower latency than with a bridge NoteThe term switch refers to a layer-2 (data-link layer) device Some vendors use the term switch more generically, using product names such as layer-3 switching, routing switches, switching routers, and multilayer switching (forwarding) These layer-3 devices can handle both data-link layer and network layer switching
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