barcode excel 2010 download 7: Configuring Cisco Hubs in Software

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7: Configuring Cisco Hubs
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The increased usage of high-bandwidth applications is driving the need for faster networks There is a per-user increase in bandwidth requirement that is compounded by the addition of more users on the network Although many argue that hubs are going the way of the dinosaur, many costconscious network designers and administrators use hubs to keep costs down, add users, and deploy network connectivity to areas of the network that do not yet require dedicated switch ports Let's face it although everybody says they need the speed of 100 Mbps Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet, most really don't In fact, a large majority of single-user PCs in use today can't put enough data on the wire to fully utilize a 10 Mbps connection In several areas of the network, hubs can be cost effective and can meet all the necessary bandwidth requirements These areas are workgroups found in small offices; branch offices; segments within a larger office network; and, increasingly, networks in the home The other primary area for hubs is in the server room or data center, where ports must be available for additional lowvolume servers, network monitors, administrative PCs, printers, and other equipment Instead of spending additional money to provide dedicated switch ports when they're really not necessary, the savvy network professional is deploying the new breed of low-cost, manageable hubs Where bandwidth is or may become an issue, 100BaseT hubs can be a wise investment that affords users more bandwidth at minimal expense As we saw in 4, hubs have come a long way from their black-box repeater days; they are faster, manageable, modular, and more reliable With the integration of management- and port-level control and visibility, hubs have evolved to suit the needs of the modern network In this chapter, we will walk through the installation and configuration process for several of Cisco's most popular hubs, to see how hubs can be a cost-effective part of your switched network We'll take a close look at the management features built into the latest hubs from Cisco, as well as how to take advantage of the SNMP and RMON capabilities of these newer devices Finally, we'll examine several network-design scenarios (workgroup LANs, and server room/data center connectivity) that will illustrate how you can use hubs effectively
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To better understand where you should use hubs, it doesn't hurt to know a little more about what they do and how they do it After a look at the basic features common to all hubs, we'll discuss the important issues of data cabling Then we'll examine the current 10BaseT and 100BaseT standards, and delve into 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX
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A hub is a network device that allows multiple stations to be cabled together in a star topology
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When the hub supports Ethernet, it is generally referred to as a hub, a concentrator, or a repeater If the network is Token Ring, the hub is typically referred to as an MSAU (Multi-Station Access Unit) Because most new installations are Ethernet, we will focus here on the various types of Ethernet hubs Ethernet hubs allow the network to be configured in a star topology, in which the PCs are located at one end of the segment and terminated into the centrally located hub This keeps cable and network adapter failures from affecting every user If a station cable is damaged by a piece of office furniture, only one PC (the one the cable is connected to) will get disconnected from the network In network configurations using a bus topology, in which all of the PCs are connected to a single run of cable, any damage to the cable will either take the entire network down or, in effect, split it into two segments at the break This is one reason why star topology networks are the most commonly deployed configurations NoteFrom a technical point of view, Ethernet and IEEE 8023 are different specifications Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox and further enhanced by a consortium of Digital, Intel, and Xerox This early implementation of Ethernet did not allow for the variety of network topologies that we use today The IEEE-defined international standards for all LAN technology, including 8023 and 8023u, are referred to in this chapter as Ethernet As you learned in 3, Ethernet is a shared media protocol Each participating station on a particular segment has to share the wire with the other stations Every station can send data onto the wire at any time, and every station on the segment can "hear" what the other stations are sending The trouble is, the wire is capable of carrying only one "conversation" at a time If there were no rules to follow, the segment would be saturated with fragments of all the attempted conversations When two stations talk at the same time, they cause a collision In other words, when more than one station sends data to the wire, each listens to determine if the data was sent during a time in which no other stations were sending If it detects that another station was trying to send at the same time, the listening station knows that the data is corrupt as a result of the collision Both stations then back off and wait a random amount of time before trying to send data again Keeping the number of collisions down means limiting the number of stations on the segment As the collisions increase, the network's performance drops Because hubs simply retransmit frames to all attached cable segments, what might have been fast with 12 users can become unbearably slow with 30 users because of the increased number of collisions Of course, it all depends on the type and amount of traffic each station typically sends, so don't assume anything without analyzing your network traffic patterns
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