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Almost all application suites rely on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) It is used as a TCP/IP-based communication channel from the management application and the network device There are essentially two components to SNMP: the Network Management System (NMS), and the SNMP agent that resides on the network component to be managed SNMP agents can run on a variety of devices, including Routers Hubs Switches UPS battery backup systems Servers (hardware and software levels) Workstations Printers The NMS polls network devices for specific pieces of information at a specified interval The agents, in turn, respond to the requests The agents keep a set of data about themselves as specified in the Management Information Bases (MIBs) that they are configured to support A MIB provides a standard representation of what information is available for the SNMP agent and where it is stored Typical MIBs in use on a Cisco network include the following: Basic MIB (RFC 1317) Basic MIB-II (RFC 1213) Ethernet-like interface types (RFC 1643) SNMP-REPEATER (RFC 1516) RMON (RFC 1757) CISCO SMI Management Information CISCO CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol)
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NoteThere are a host of other MIBs that contain information specific to various devices If you have an SNMP manageable server, router, or switch with advanced/enhanced functionality, it very likely supports several MIBs The NMS keeps a database of the information extracted from the MIBs for all of the SNMP agents managed by that NMS This allows the SNMP agents to provide information specific to a particular device, reducing complexity as well as CPU and network overhead To send and receive SNMP data, the NMS and agents exchange information over TCP/IP UDP ports 161 and 162 are used to send and receive messages called Protocol Data Units (PDU) between the NMS and the agents
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The following five packet types are used for SNMP messages:
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Get Request Get-Next Request Set Request Get Response Trap
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NMS to SNMP agent NMS to SNMP agent NMS to SNMP agent SNMP agent to NMS SNMP agent to NMS
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Retrieves the values of specific MIB variables from an SNMP agent Retrieves the next instance of information for a particular variable or device Alters the value of objects that can be written to the MIB Contains the values of the requested variables Contains information about an event that caused an unsolicited message from an SNMP agent
Proxy SNMP Agents
In some cases, you may have a network device that cannot support the SNMP-required protocols An SNMP proxy agent can be used to manage these devices This allows the NMS to send an SNMP query to the proxy agent, which converts the request into the managed device's native management protocol and delivers it The device can reply in its native protocol to the proxy agent, which then forwards the reply back to the NMS
Polling
As a managed network grows in size, so will the SNMP traffic There are two simple methods to reducing the SNMP traffic overhead on the network: Adjust the polling interval This reduces the amount of time the NMS waits between requests for information from each device on the network Configure the agents to send trap packets The agent sends information to the NMS only when a specific event has occurred
SNMP with Windows NT and Windows 2000
Like management-enabled Cisco devices, Windows has an SNMP agent The Windows SNMP agent runs as a service and accesses the Registry It is able to reply with information because the Registry data is converted into a MIB format that can be queried by standard SNMP managers Windows NT and Windows 2000 support multiple MIBs via an agent API This allows third-party
vendors to create MIBs specific to their NT application Following are several Windows-based MIBs: Internet MIB-II Defines objects used for fault analysis as defined in RFC 1213 LAN Manager MIB-II Defines objects used for user and login information Microsoft DHCP Service MIB Contains information about the use of the DHCP service Microsoft Internet Information Services MIB Defines statistics describing the use of the HTTP, Gopher, and FTP servers Microsoft WINS Service MIB Defines statistics and database information about the use of the WINS Service
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