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CB (RF) 398 pF CB (RF) 398 pF CB (AC) 01 F RB 416 K R2 50 K LC RESONATOR C3 L1 6 pF 756 nH C1 331 pF R1 50 K D1 CC 398 pF C2 331 pF RF 540
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CB (AC) 1 F Port_2 50 CC 398 pF R5 166 R4 L2 L3 166 2398 nH 2398 nH Port_3 50 C6 8 pF
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C4 8 pF
C5 138 pF LPF
Port_1 50
CE AMPLIFIER RE 75
6-dB PAD
40 32 24 16
Open Loop Response
180 144 108
0 2 4 6
400 MHz, 11949 dB 400 MHz, 0574 deg
PHASE (deg)
GAIN, Q (dB)
S11, S22 (dB)
8 0 8 16 24 32 40 300
GAIN PHASE Q
36 0 36 72 108 144 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 180 500
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 300
S11 S22
320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
2 15 5 12 5 15 04 25
399186 MHz, 4573 dBm 1*399186
Pout (dBm)
VPORT (V)
35 45 55
798371 MHz, -42604 dBm 2*399186
04
12
65 75
1197557 MHz, -69893 dBm 3*399186
2 0
85 0
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Time (ns)
Frequency (MHz)
FIGURE 427 A BJT VCO oscillator example showing excellent: (a) gain/phase response and loaded Q; (b) open-loop port-to-port matching; (c) start-up; (d) output power (Excess gain will decrease when Q is added to components, especially the varactor)
11 R1, R2 = 50 k (bias resistors used to isolate varactors from other circuit reactances, and to decouple noise and RF) 12 PAD, 6 dB = 50- 6-dB attenuator pad of R5, R4 = 166 ; R3 = 669 (used for VCO isolation and to permit the LPF to see a good match)
Four
13 LPF = fifth-order lowpass filter of L2, L3 = 2398 nH; C4,C6 = 8 pF; C5 =138 pF (used to decrease output harmonics) 14 Tune oscillator for optimal response, as required
NOTE : If employing a nonlinear simulator to verify the accuracy of the linear open-loop
simulation, and we see that the VCO is now either tuning improperly, or not within its proper frequency range, or jumps to incorrect frequencies as compared to the linear simulation, then we must add unloaded Q to the resonator s ideal L and C components This lack of any real-life resistance in the simulation of these particular parts causes high voltages to form within the resonator circuit, which then impinges on the varactor diode, producing these flawed tuning symptoms Therefore, adding unloaded Q is not only a more realistic preliminary RF simulation technique, but will also obviously decrease the loaded Q of the entire resonator, and thus decrease the excessively high voltages that are present within the circuit
Be aware that in going from a linear to a nonlinear simulation, the two different methods will generally vary by a few percent in the resultant output frequency results This is due to the transistor now running in its more accurate nonlinear mode, rather than with the original linear assumptions required for open-loop simulation
Integrated LC and VCO Oscillator for up to 1050 MHz (Fig 428)
Integrated circuits are now being manufactured that will function as an LO or as a VCO by simply attaching a few external components One such oscillator is Maxim s MAX2620, which can operate anywhere between 10 and 1050 MHz, and with low phase
VTUNE VCC VCC
MAX2620 1 VCC1 OUT 8 VCC 2 TANK VCC2 7 fr OUT
FDBK GND 6
4 SHDN
OUT 5
fr OUT
ON/OFF
FIGURE 428
The Maxim oscillator integrated circuit with support components
Oscillator Design
noise ( 110 dBc/Hz @ 25-kHz offset) It has a built-in integrated output buffer, and requires only a low-voltage power supply (+27 to +525 V) for decreased power consumption (27 mW at 3 VCC) The MAX2620 can be employed differentially to offer an IC mixer an LO signal, or as an unbalanced oscillator to feed a double-balanced mixer
LC and VCO Oscillator Bench Testing
After any of the above oscillators have been built as physical prototypes, the following steps are helpful to confirm proper circuit operation: 1 Supply the oscillator with its nominal VCC Viewing the oscillator s output, only the fundamental frequency and its harmonics (at 10 dBc or less) should be present Small amplitude spurii from any external EMI entering the oscillator may be present, and are usually acceptable in most applications In a fundamental (non-multiplied) oscillator, there should be no subharmonics at the output port nor spurii located at 025 fr or 05 fr, which if present are due to undesired parametric oscillations 2 Smoothly vary the oscillator s supply voltage VCC from 0 V to the maximum safe operating voltage, and then back down, while confirming that there are only uniform frequency and power output variations with no unexpected jumps in either parameter (except at some low VCC value, where oscillations will then naturally cease) 3 Smoothly vary the VCO s control voltage VCNTRL across its entire range, while confirming that there are only even and continuous output frequency changes across its entire monotonic tuning range, and with no severe RF power dips or peaks 4 The oscillator should be tested over wide temperature and load variations to check that it remains within proper frequency, power, and harmonic specifications
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