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SAWs are physically small, and possess a delicate internal electrode structure that may be easily damaged by low levels of DC voltage or RF power Consequently, all RF and DC input levels must be maintained below the SAW s maximum data sheet specifications While any signal pin of a SAW can be used as the input or output port, the actual impedance match for each port may be slightly different For optimal performance, therefore, the same SAW package pins must be presented as the input or output in all subsequent wireless builds during an entire production run SAW s are inherently capacitive in nature, and this capacitance must be tuned out To obtain a proper impedance match to a 50- system, certain SAWs may need a series inductor placed at each port (some SAW matching circuits can be a little more complex)
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There are a few limitations and problems with SAW filters that hinder their usefulness to some extent: 1 SAWs cannot have any of their filter specifications, such as center frequency, bandwidth, and insertion loss, changed during a production run, since they are manufactured in large quantities by a masking process that is similar to an integrated circuit 2 Off-the-shelf SAWs can only be readily obtained at certain common center frequencies and bandwidths This is because of the expense of custom manufacturing these filters in smaller quantities 3 Some wide bandwidth SAWs can have extremely high insertion losses of up to 30 dB, which may have to be compensated for by inserting an amplifier circuit after the SAW filter 4 Variations in temperature across some SAW devices may cause increased BER in digitally modulated radios 5 Unpredictable discharges of energy from the SAW structure can occur with some wideband devices, causing possible damage or destruction of other components within the circuit If this is an issue with the chosen SAW, it can be alleviated by placing shunt 5-k resistors at the SAW s input and output ports 6 SAW filters may have odd or even harmonic spurious responses These spurious responses will degrade the SAW s stopband attenuation 7 SAWs can have long time delays of up to one or more microseconds as the RF travels through the filter s internal structure, which can be problematic in certain systems
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Active filters typically use an operational amplifier and an RC filter network to obtain lowpass, highpass, bandstop, and bandpass responses at low frequencies Passive RC networks themselves can be employed alone as a simple, nonresonant filter for certain audio applications, and can be utilized to attenuate RF, while passing only DC and low-frequency AC As an example, the basic RC filter of Fig 672a works as
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FIGURE 672 (a) A basic RC lowpass lter and (b) a basic RC highpass lter
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a lowpass filter by a voltage divider action: The capacitor C will have a low reactance to higher frequencies, while the resistor is chosen to be of such a value as to be of a significantly higher resistance to higher frequencies than C Thus, high-frequency signals are dropped across R, while little RF will be dropped across C However, with lower frequencies, the reactance of C is higher than the resistance of R, so the low frequencies get dropped across C, and are then tapped from the output with low attenuation Reversing the resistor with the capacitor will create the opposite effect, producing a highpass filter (Fig 672b) Thus, any low frequencies will now be dropped across the high reactance of C, but not across the lower resistance of R Higher frequencies will easily pass through the lower reactance of C, but be dropped across the higher resistance of R Since the output is across R, a highpass filter has now been formed However, if we now insert a high-gain amplifier, such as an op-amp, within the above RC filter, we will obtain buffering from the effects of the filter s load, as well as a sharper filter response curve and an insertion gain instead of an insertion loss Figure 673 is a common RC active lowpass filter, and functions so: C2 passes the higher frequencies to ground, while C1 sends a degenerative feedback to the noninverting input as the frequency increases This is caused by the capacitor s decreasing capacitive reactance at increasing frequencies Thus, C1, C2, R1, R2 and the op-amp will efficiently form an active lowpass filter An active highpass filter is shown in Fig 674, with R2, C1, and C2 forming a simple highpass filter that is used to send the higher frequencies to the op-amp s input with little attenuation At the lower frequencies, however, the increasing capacitive reactance of C1 and C2 attenuates, decreasing their signal at the filter s output The active bandpass filter of Fig 675 employs a feedback network that readily passes all frequencies back to its input that are not within the filter s passband and, since this feedback is degenerative, all but a narrow passband of desired frequencies will be attenuated When designing active op-amp filters for use at these low, usually voice or data frequencies, it is assumed that the driving source into the filter is 0 , that the filter s own input impedance is infinite ohms, that the filter itself sees 0 when looking back into the prior driving stage, and that the filter itself sees infinite ohms when looking forward into the next stage These assumptions work well, since real-life active filters
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