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The undesired mixer product frequency generation, and its suppression, is important in the entire heterodyning process Output mixer products (Fig 710) are formed by the mixing in the nonlinear diode elements of the incoming single-tone RF (and its own resultant harmonics), with the single-tone LO (and its resultant harmonics) This creates high-order distortion products that are higher and lower in frequency than the desired product, with this desired product normally being the difference frequency of the LO and RF in a receiver, or the sum of the LO and IF in a transmitter Two-tone intermodulation products are created when two tones (f1 and f2) are placed at the RF input port of the receiver s mixer and, when mixed with each other and the LO, give birth to high-order in-band spurious responses at the IF output port of the mixer While keeping in mind that the higher the possible LO oscillator power, the lower the distortion products, Fig 711 demonstrates this point with three different level mixers, a Level 7, Level 17, and a Level 23), with each using its recommended LO input power of either 7, 17, or 23 dBm The Level 7 mixer s IF output shows high third-, fifth-, and seventh-order two-tone IMD products for a 0-dBm RF input The Level 17 mixer decreases these IMD products for the same 0-dBm RF input amplitude The Level 23 mixer shows IMD products much further down than even the Level 17 mixer, at approximately 65 dBc
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SPUR
120
120
150
2000 3000 4000 Frequency (MHz)
150
2000 3000 4000 Frequency (MHz)
R = 24 GHz ( 30 dBm); LO = 26 GHz (+13 dBm); IF = 200 MHz RF = 24 GHz ( 30 dBm); LO = 26 GHz (+8 dBm); IF = 200 MHz
FIGURE 710 Various single-tone mixer spurs generated by the single-ended mixing of the RF (24 GHz at 30 dBm) and the LO (26 GHz at +13 dBm), and their harmonics in an unbalanced mixer, with light one-pole ltering (left); a DBM diode mixer s IF output spectrum in a well-balanced circuit (right)
Mixer Design
dB dB
FREQUENCY a
FREQUENCY b
FREQUENCY c
FIGURE 711 Different level mixers and their two-tone output spectra for a DBM: (a) Level 7, (b) Level 17, (c) Level 23
7 dBm LO DRIVE
IMD (dBc)
D dBm RI VE L
LO m dB 13 RIVE D
100
TWO-TONE INPUT AT RF PORT (dBm)
FIGURE 712 A Level 7 DBM mixer s IMD generation at various LO levels and two-tone input powers
A further subject in mixer design is demonstrated in Fig 712: Boosting a Level 7 DBM s LO drive does not in itself drastically improve the IMD product suppression This can only be accomplished, in any significant way, by increasing the number of diodes in each mixer leg from one to two in series (as well as other techniques), and then increasing the LO drive, with the then resultant improvement in IMD suppression The intercept point indicates the mixer s capability to suppress intermodulation distortion, typically referring to two-tone third-order intermodulation products A high intercept point decreases the undesirable generation of these IMDs But in the world of DBMs, the intercept point and the 1-dB compression point do not directly correlate to each other; so choosing a mixer simply for its high 1-dB compression point as a guarantee of increased two-tone suppression could prove a poor choice As stated above, two-tone third-order products can be reduced by increasing the level of the mixer (and therefore the LO drive level itself), and/or by decreasing the power of the input two-tone RF signal But since we will generally use the manufacturer s recommended LO drive for our chosen level of mixer, which will be selected in consideration of the maximum LO power available within our own wireless design, as well as cost constraints, then decreasing the input RF level is normally the easiest and cheapest solution for two-tone third-order product improvement By decreasing the input two-tone RF signal by 1 dB, we will decrease the output two-tone third-order products by 3 dB However, the inverse is also true: increasing the RF two-tone input by 1 dB will increase the output two-tone third-order products by
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