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As we have discovered, the noise floor of a receiver system is a critical issue To calculate this, including the antenna s own NF as well as the receiver s NF, we can use the formula below This formula works accurately for terrestrial receiver system NF calculations, but assumes a receiving antenna s noise temperature to be 290 K, which is a good antenna temperature estimate for all antennas in an earthbound link environment And since the formula calculates the signal strength, in dBm, required at the input of the
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receiving antenna for the receiver to output at a 0-dB SNR, we would have to confirm that the transmitter on the other end of the link has the power to permit us, with sufficient fade margin, to obtain this SNR (which is the value as required by the receiver s modem or detector in use at the output of the IF): NF S = 10 log(BW) + 10 log 290 10 10 1 1986 GA where S = entire receiver s sensitivity with a 0-dB SNR at its output, dBm BW = system s IF bandwidth, Hz NF = receiver s noise figure, dB GA = receiver s antenna gain, dB
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Another factor that affects the noise of the receiver system is the antenna s orientation If the receiving antenna is pointed more toward the sky (but not toward the sun) in order to receive, as an example, a signal from a remote transmitter that is placed on a mountain top, then its noise temperature, and thus its NF, will be less than if it were pointed at the ground (The ground has an approximate noise temperature of 290 K, as inferred above) However, even if the receiver antenna were pointed at the coldest regions of space, as it would be if communicating with a satellite transmitter, then its side lobe reception would still increase its noise temperature somewhat, depending on the side lobe s gain, angle, and other factors
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ntennas are designed to efficiently transform alternating current into electromagnetic (EM) waves, and to then send these waves out into free space The electromagnetic waves are caught by the receiving antenna, where they are converted into an alternating current The actual design of the antenna depends on the frequency of its operation, output power, directivity, robustness, cost, and space limitations However, any resonant antenna can be considered as a series resonant circuit, and when cut to a quarter wavelength for a vertical monopole or half for a dipole (Fig 101), maximum current will be allowed to flow through its elements This will give the maximum signal strength possible for that particular antenna design Simply, an antenna is a device that accepts high-frequency alternating current directly from a radio transmitter, translating it into a radiating electromagnetic field An antenna can be thought of as an impedance-matching structure that matches the radio transmitter s 50- output to the characteristic impedance of free space, while also focusing its radio frequency (RF) energy in a preferred direction This same antenna is also equally capable of taking an incoming electromagnetic field and translating it into high-frequency alternating current for direct insertion into a receiver Thus, as an electromagnetic wave cuts the antenna s elements it induces a current flow, and a difference in potential will now be created between each end of the antenna In other words, any passing electromagnetic wave in the air around us will dump some of its RF energy behind into the antenna as it propagates past its conductive elements However, the actual amplitude of this extracted and received RF energy is relative to the antenna s aperture, which is the useful area that the metallic structure of the antenna embodies to any passing electromagnetic wave This is analogous to a larger fish net being capable of catching more fish than a smaller net The electromagnetic fields that are passing by or being created by an antenna will have both intensity and direction, with the electric field measured in volts, and the magnetic field, measured in gauss Moreover, when one of these fields starts to move, it will repeatedly recreate the other type of field; which is why it is referred to as an electromagnetic field Therefore, a current will flow within a conductor when any magnetic field travels past it; and when current flows, a magnetic field will then be instantly produced The antenna structure itself can consist of any geometric assembly that is capable of conducting RF energy How efficiently the antenna actually converts received or transmitted energy rests strictly on its size, shape, materials, frequency of operation, and nearby structures And any passive antenna, whether used for receiving or transmitting, will have the same gain, impedance, and directional pattern during both receive and transmit This is called reciprocity Consequently, any efficient antenna will
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