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If some type of valid RF computer simulation is not performed after the paper circuit design has been completed, much tuning and PCB rework will have to be performed to force a microwave or RF design to function properly, even if we follow an extremely cautious wireless design and PCB layout methodology This is due to the profusion of undesired, real-world component and board parasitics, along with the various component/trace tolerances and temperature affects, which will all conspire to alter the expected performance These influences cannot be realistically calculated during the design stage, either on paper or within current synthesis software packages However, they can be easily and automatically reproduced in any common RF simulator program, and the synthesized circuit values then appropriately tuned and optimized in software As a result, RF circuit design and simulation, to be truly accurate and useful, must be carried out in certain, fundamental ways As all initial RF designs must first be calculated with the assumption of ideal components and zero length traces, we must first model and then tune our design under these unrealistic conditions Then, after the circuit operates as we had originally anticipated, the next step is to replace all the ideal components with the appropriate and more lifelike active and passive models, and add all PCB traces, microstrips, pads, and bends (This is not of any concern in a circuit or section of a circuit that will only be seeing low frequency AC or DC waveforms, as trace/component parasitics and length will have little influence) Next, we will tune this more realistic circuit until we obtain the performance desired Due to significant real-life implementation losses, such performance will generally be somewhat inferior to our original paper calculations After this simulated circuit is sent out for fabrication and assembly, further performance degradation may occur due to the inaccuracy of the original S-parameter models used in the simulator, with this model inaccuracy caused by the parasitic effects as outlined above, and also by the component manufacturer s own S-parameter
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measurement errors and/or the unavoidable necessity to supply a single model that is actually a convenient statistical average of multiple tested components (since real components will always have a particular tolerance, with values that vary from part-topart and lot-to-lot) The consumer-grade substrate material itself will also possess dielectric constant and dimensional variations over that of the simulator s precise and unrealistic homogonous substrate, thus adding to a certain innate inaccuracy of any circuit simulation versus a real physical PCB Moreover, the assembled PCB s components will be inserted and soldered at a slightly different distance from each other than had been specified by the simulation, causing another small simulator to real life variation Lastly, if the particular component models used in the simulation have not been characterized at the exact low- or high-frequency band we may be designing in, then a further inaccuracy may crop-up, called extrapolation error This is due to the RF simulator actually speculating as to the true value of the missing data points, sometimes causing significant inaccuracies However, if performed correctly, linear RF simulations can be extremely accurate up to 6 GHz, even with all of the concerns expressed above In fact, the following is an excellent step-by-step procedure on how to perform very precise circuit simulations, and with the absolute minimum of simulation to real-life error
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Two wideband bandpass filters were designed, simulated, and built to demonstrate the level of accuracy that can be supplied by employing the proper simulation techniques Due to PCB size constraints, as well as center frequencies, bandwidths, performance, and cost, an LC highpass/lowpass lumped bandpass filter (BPF) topology was selected for these structures The filters will employ high-quality consumer grade 0402-size capacitors by ATC (600L series) and inductors by Coilcraft (0402CS series) The two BPFs were designed by using standard modern filter design methods, and assuming ideal components and perfect, zero-length conductors The resultant circuits were then laid-out to fit within the limited PCB physical space constraints [(Fig 112(a)] Next, the discrete circuit was entered into Agilent s Eagleware linear simulator following, exactly, the PCB layout s dimensions and topology (Fig 113) In other words, each of the PCB layout s copper T junctions, bends, width variations, spacings, lengths, significant vias, and the like, were meticulously recreated and placed in the simulator (Fig 114) Indeed, if the RF simulation layout does not follow the physical PCB board layout closely, the level of simulation accuracy will be quite poor at RF and microwave frequencies A quick method to confirm that the simulation layout is actually following the PCB layout is to make use of the simulator s own built-in EM or PCB layout capability, when available, as shown in Fig 112(b) By commanding the program to create a full EM simulation from the linear simulator s circuit, we can now visually and intuitively see that both the physical PCB layout and the simulator s layout are virtually identical
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