how to make barcode in excel 2003 FIGURE 122 (a) A constellation diagram; (b) an eye diagram in Software

Creator Code128 in Software FIGURE 122 (a) A constellation diagram; (b) an eye diagram

FIGURE 122 (a) A constellation diagram; (b) an eye diagram
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FIGURE 123 Test setup for constellation and eye diagrams
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FIGURE 124 (a) An almost perfect 16-QAM constellation diagram; (b) a CW signal interference tone effect on the constellation diagram; (c) signal degradation caused by a poor SNR; (d) signal degradation caused by the digital radio s local oscillator instability; (e) slight overdriving of the transmitter s power ampli er; (f ) multipath causing an uneven amplitude across the passband of the digital signal
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as displayed on the screen of the oscilloscope Each of these pulses from the demodulator will also exhibit the noise and jitter as added by not only the transmitter, but also by the wireless signal path and the receiver itself This makes each pulse slightly different from the last and, as the received signal is degraded by these impairments, the eye will begin to close, and the BER will increase
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Measuring a Constellation Diagram
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1 Attach the I to the X input of the scope, and the Q to the Y input of the scope (normally, this will be Channel 1 and Channel 2), and turn on the scope s X-Y mode and the persistence function 2 Attach the symbol clock to the external trigger (turn on EXT TRIGGER) 3 The constellation itself should now be visible, along with faint lines joining the various points of the constellation (The lines are the actual symbol transitions between the constellation points, called symbol trajectories) 4 To obtain only the constellation points, without the symbol transition lines, a BNC connector on the back plate of some oscilloscopes can be connected to the receiver s demodulator symbol clock to force the oscilloscope s electron beam to turn on only at the exact moment of sampling This will blank the transitions between constellation points 5 Common impairments, and how they look in a constellation diagram, are shown in Fig 124
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To Measure an Eye Diagram
1 Maintain the same setup as above, but turn off the scope s X-Y function 2 Set the scope s HORIZONTAL TIMEBASE to obtain 3 symbol periods per 10 divisions 3 View the eye diagram The height of the eye is the noise margin of the receiver s output, while the left and right corner of each eye indicating the amount of frequency jitter present Therefore, the eye itself should always be open: the wider the eye, the less jitter, while the taller the eye, the less noise
Bit Error Rate Test
The bit error rate test measures the ratio of bad bits to all the transmitted bits, often over a range of received input and output powers, for a digital communications system When the received power is low, BER rate increases due to a degraded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); when high, amplifier compression is the major contributor to a poor BER BER testing is an excellent way to check the signal quality of a digital radio system, a lone receiver, or the entire link However, any in-line error correction and/or adaptive equalization will make the BER appear far better than it actually would be without these two processes Thus, the normal indication of how close a system is to a complete digital signal outage may be hidden by the error correction and equalization circuits, which is why many receiver BER tests are best performed before any such correction and equalization stages (to obtain the raw BER) In the field, it is still invaluable to perform final BER tests from one end of a complete communications system to the other, with correction and equalization engaged, to confirm that the entire link meets BER specs over a set time period, and that the total
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system is functioning as designed Indeed, to prevent a digital wireless link from failing periodically, it must be completely tested to check that there is sufficient link budget to overcome any impairment in the air interface between the transmitter and receiver (see Sec 94, RF Propagation ) Still, a generally poor BER in a complete end-to-end system measurement will not indicate exactly where the trouble lies Finding the weak link in a complete end-to-end communications system is actually part of error distribution, and could be caused by poor antenna alignment, overdriven amplifiers, low signal output, path obstructions, high NF, multipath, cable losses, frequency drift, component malfunction, and so on The test equipment we can utilize to assist us with tracking down BER problems are a vector signal analyzer (VSA), a spectrum analyzer, and standard lab equipment, while using typical system troubleshooting techniques The radio design phase, and not after, is the time to confirm that the BER will meet the expectations for our particular communications system To preserve the desired path length and quality of service at our preferred BER, the only way to cure a radio s deficiencies after it is built and tested is through system modifications to the transmit power, antenna gain, and/or receiver NF
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