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Cut traces to lengthen emitter leads
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Adjustable trace lengths for an LNA s emitter leads
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If LNA stability is still a concern, adding a very low-value series resistor of 2 to 15 between the transistor s collector and its output matching network will decrease stage gain, forcing LNA stability over a very wide band of frequencies In fact, safety from oscillation in high gain amplifiers from VHF upward will normally demand some small value of LNA resistive collector loading, with higher values of the series resistor being more stable, but with smaller amplifier gain Thus, to recap a major LNA concept: Increasing LNA emitter lead length excessively, therefore adding too much emitter inductance, may severely degrade higher frequency LNA stability; there is, nonetheless, an ideal emitter lead length that will be a perfect compromise between the stability of the high frequencies, the in-band frequencies, and the lower frequencies And if any of the lower frequencies are still shown to be unstable, we can try increasing the series collector stabilizing resistor, even though both gain and P1dB will be compromised whenever we improve stability resistively in this way However, unconditional and wideband stability is by far the most important, and the most difficult to achieve, parameter in all of RF amplifier design As an example of BJT LNA design (also see Sec 347), we find that the ideal bias point for the lowest NF for a certain low noise transistor is found to be VCE = 10 V and IC = 6 mA on the device s data sheet Also found on the data sheet, we see that the optimal S for low-noise operation is S(opt), and equals 065 138 for this particular transistor for the frequency and bias of interest ( S(opt) may be referred to as o and opt) Along with S(opt) we will find the Ga (the associated gain at the minimum NF, in dB) expected of the transistor at our desired operating frequency The S-parameters of the transistor at the above bias conditions are also found to be S11 = 035 160 ; S22 = 037 36 ; S12 = 005 61 ; S21 = 34 62 Therefore, design a stable LNA that can be placed within a 50- receiver system at 500 MHz, and calculate the required impedance matching networks and gain 1 Confirm that the transistor is unconditionally stable (K > 1) If not, stabilize with a small-value series resistor at its output port
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2 The S(opt) for optimal NF, as stated on the data sheet, is 065 138 , which equals 048 + j043 3 Find the input matching network s optimum NF match from the source to the transistor s input using this S(opt) of step 2 (ie, make the transistor s input think it is seeing S(opt) as its source impedance) 4 Find L where
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S12 S21 S(opt ) = S22 + 1 S11 S(opt )
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L = load reflection coefficient S(opt) = value as shown in step 2 above = take the complex conjugate of the resultant
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5 Match the transistor s output conjugately to the next stage, as presented earlier in this chapter
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NOTE : An LNA can also be noise matched at its input port, and gain or IP3 matched at its output port During simulation we can then tweak the stability, S11, noise, and gain for the best compromise
When designing LNAs, we can also increase the collector current draw of the transistor to improve its vital IP3 (and gain) performance This will obviously raise the stage s NF, as well as its current draw Higher levels of collector-emitter voltage will also supply higher linearity, since there will now be more voltage swing obtainable at the LNA s output This ability to improve the LNA s linearity is limited not only by the available supply voltage as set by the bias network, but also by the RF transistor s collector-emitter s limited breakdown voltage (BV(BR)CEO) In fact, the BV(BR)CEO can be surprisingly low in some RF microwave transistors, and nearing or exceeding this point will start to increase the stage s NF, and may damage or destroy the transistor itself We can further improve the LNA s IP3 by up to 12 dB by attenuating the lower, or video, frequencies, which are the frequencies between DC and 40 MHz This IP3 enhancement approach is sometimes referred to as the envelope termination technique This will not improve a stage s P1dB, so the typical 10 dB difference between the IP3 and the P1dB specifications will no longer apply The video frequencies, if not removed, modulate the LNA s base and collector bias voltages, degrading the stage s IP3/linearity The mixing products of the two injected test frequencies f1 and f2, which are used to perform the two-tone IP3 test, will be well within this video frequency range as f2 f1, with the degradation of the stage s IP3/ linearity caused by the fact that any decrease in the collector voltage of an amplifier forces it to saturate earlier, and since the bias Q-point of the stage will be shifted by a
Use full vector algebra (Z 0 ) in S-parameter calculations (eg, S11 = 035 45 )
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