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Amplifier Design
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undesired high frequency/high gain point, which is employed to improve stability at that specific frequency (CS resonates with LE, and should be utilized only if needed It may also be exploited as part of the ZOUT matching network)
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Small-Signal Amplifier Class A Design Procedure
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The complete step-by-step design method for a linear Class A amplifier is outlined below (Fig 362)
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1 Select the appropriate transistor for the desired frequency range, gain, NF, cost, package, and the availability of S-parameter files at different bias levels 2 Select the appropriate bias for the transistor in your application by studying the transistor s data sheet For instance, an LNA transistor may need a collector current of 5 mA, while a transistor for other uses may require a higher level of bias 3 Insert the transistor s S-parameter model, which should be at the closest expected bias level of the device to be used, and check for stability all the way from the lowest to the highest frequencies available within the S-parameter file 4 If there are any frequencies that have a K less than 1, or a B1 below 0, then stabilize the transistor, while sacrificing gain and NF as little as possible We may also want to check out other bias level S-parameter files for the same model transistor (Figure 363 illustrates the exact same model transistor, but at three different bias levels of 5 mA, 10 mA, and 20 mA, and the resulting variations in K with collector current) We may even exploit a transistor that has only conditional stability, but we would then need to guarantee that it would never see any impedance that
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STABILITY RF
MATCH LOUT STABILITY RS RF OUTPUT 50
RF INPUT 50
MATCH COUT
FIGURE 362 A complete small-signal Class A ampli er circuit, with RF matching, DC bias, and stability networks
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K 150
Stavility factor
Unconditionally stable (u1, u2, K)
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000
FIGURE 363 One example of the change in a transistor s stability with a change in bias level (stable above 1, unstable below 1)
was within its unstable region (An amplifier can be considered as stable if K > 1, and both the input and output return losses are negative; however, also having a B1 > 0 will then virtually guarantee complete stability) 5 To stabilize the transistor, follow this procedure in the linear simulator: Insert and vary the value of a resistor that is first placed in series, and then in shunt, at the transistor s collector output port Perform the same action at the device s input port (if NF does not matter), all the while checking for improvements in K across the widest frequency range available in the S-parameter file This empirical manipulation of stabilizing components is the only method of improving the stability while minimizing any undesired gain reductions To decrease these gain losses, the series resistor must be adjusted to the lowest possible value, while any shunt or feedback resistor must be optimized to be at the highest possible value The resistor need only just barely force K and B1, with about 10% stability margin, to indicate full wideband frequency amplifier stability The shunt resistive components will typically range between 100 and 500 , while the series resistors will extend from 2 to 15 Many active devices will be well stabilized with a single series output resistor, or a single output or input shunt resistor In order to achieve complete wideband K > 1 and B1 > 0 stability, other transistors may require a combination of methods (As stated, for lowest noise, an LNA design will demand that there not be a series input resistor of any kind)
Amplifier Design
BIAS
50 INPUT MATCHING
Q1 OUTPUT MATCHING R1 SHOULD HAVE DC BLOCK
50
RCL STABILIZATION
FIGURE 364
An RCL stabilization network
There may be times when reactive stabilization circuits will meet our demanding requirements (Fig 364), since they may be the only networks that can stabilize the transistor without unacceptable losses The stabilization network s LC tank will be tuned to the amplifier s resonant frequency, with a high L/C ratio to maximize bandwidth, while the tank s series resistor will be tuned up and down between 30 and 100 for optimum K/S21 performance Any shunt stabilization circuit, either resistive or reactive, must have a DC block inserted in that leg if it will short the amplifier s bias to ground to an unacceptable level 6 We can now take the complete S-parameter file for the transistor, along with its stabilization components, and perform a simultaneous conjugate (or noise) match on the combination As stated, we must include the actual stabilization components as part of the transistor during this matching, as these components would alter the match Indeed, if these stabilization components must be modified in value to optimize K/S21 after the matching circuit is designed, then the input and output match itself must also be recalculated, or at least slightly retuned 7 When the stabilization resistors are part of the amplifier circuit, the only way to quickly and easily perform such a simultaneous impedance match is by means of the included Qucs simulator program:
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