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However, the typical discrete passive collector feedback bias is normally sufficient for most low powered (less than 2 W) PA requirements
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Load-pulling is a method that continually modifies the PA transistor s load impedance, during which we are continually measuring its performance characteristics Source pulling, on the other hand, is used to continually vary the transistor s source impedance In tuning of a design, the source input of a PA is usually presented with the impedance that will provide the amplifier with maximum gain, while the PA s output load impedance is varied around the Smith chart for optimal output power As stated, since the optimal load impedance for a PA is not the complex conjugate of its output, little good would come from directly measuring its ZOUT with a VNA What we need to do is discover the exact load that the PA would like to see at a specific input power level in order to supply maximum gain, output power, and efficiency This can be accomplished on the bench by employing either manual or automatic load pull methods Critically, a load pull setup will also assist us in confirming that a PA is capable of maintaining full stage stability over all input/output impedances, frequencies, and bias voltages Automatic load/source pulling equipment, referred to as ATS (automated tuner system), requires a full automated load-pull instrument, such as that sold by Maury Microwave This complex device will automatically step through a huge number of input/output impedances across most of the Smith chart Manual load pulling involves a simple and low-cost slide-stub tuner, a signal generator, power supply, spectrum analyzer, VNA, and a bias-T Performing a manual load-pull involves biasing the amplifier under test through the bias-Ts that are placed at both the transistor s input and output ports (Fig 371) These slide-stub tuners are then connected to the output and input of the bias-Ts Next, a 30-dB 50- pad attenuator is placed on the stub tuner s output, which is then connected to the signal generator and spectrum analyzer (The 30-dB pad is used to protect the front end of the spectrum analyzer against damage or overload, as well as to supply a precise broadband resistive 50- termination for the tuner s output) Now, while injecting the RF signal at the exact required input power (this exact injected value of PIN must be known in order to not only tune the PA for the proper power level match, but also to accurately calculate the power gain of the device), adjust the slide-stub tuners at the device s input and output ports while looking for the highest stable RF power output from the transistor, as well as its lowest current draw (ie, highest efficiency) The input of the amplifier is normally presented with the impedance that will provide the PA with maximum gain, while the PA s output load impedance is varied around the Smith chart for a maximum performance characteristic, such as maximum output power Remove the active device and measure the input and output impedance of the bias-Ts and stub tuners Now, these exact impedance values must be duplicated with a discrete or distributed matching and bias network when designing the final PA A point to keep in mind when measuring a tuner s impedance after it has tuned the input/output of the PA, is that there can be a certain amount of inaccuracy introduced when the VNA must measure very low impedances, which can be typical of many high powered active devices The VNA inaccuracy is due to the measurement uncertainty inherent in all such test and measurement equipment, and can be an issue if the active device s real impedances are under 2 Extreme inaccuracies will also occur as the wavelength shrinks at high frequencies versus circuit length
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