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amplifier s emitter resistor This will increase the emitter resistor s degenerative feedback as the frequencies are decreased, leveling out the gain The application of emitter components of any kind is viable only up to 2 GHz and below, due to the stability-robbing presence of their added lead inductance
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383 Wideband Amplifier Design
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A stable wideband Class A amplifier can be quickly designed by following these simple steps
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Wideband Resistive Feedback Small-Signal Amplifier (Fig 3121)
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1 Select a suitable transistor for the desired frequency range, gain, NF, cost, package, and the availability of S-parameter files at different bias levels 2 Select the appropriate bias for the transistor in your application by studying the transistor s data sheet For instance, a transistor for an LNA may need a collector current of 5 mA (or less), while a transistor for other uses may require a higher level of bias 3 Insert the transistor s S-parameter model, which should be at the closest expected bias level of the device to be used, into the simulator
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RC Lf Cf
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OUTPUT 50 RSTAB
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Resistive wideband RF ampli er with 50- input and output
4 Design Cf and Lf to be series resonant at, or just below, the lowest frequency in the band of interest 5 Rf will be adjusted empirically for the appropriate feedback to optimize gain, return loss, and stability 6 All coupling (CC) and RF bypass (CB) capacitors will have a reactance across the entire band of less than 3 LC is an RF choke, required only if RC is less than 500 7 Design the amplifier s DC bias network for a stable temperature operation of the transistor over its specified temperature range, as detailed elsewhere in this chapter 8 Run the circuit in the simulator, and check for stability all the way from the lowest to the very highest frequencies available within the S-Parameter file If there are any frequencies that have a K that is less than 1, or a B1 below 0, then stabilize the transistor, while sacrificing gain and NF as little as possible We can accomplish this by inserting and varying the value of a resistor that is first placed in series, and then in shunt, at the transistor s collector output port Perform the same action at the device s input port, all the while checking for improvements in K In another window, confirm that gain and return loss are nor being too adversely affected, but only across our band of interest The shunt resistive components will typically range between 100 and 500 , while the series resistors will extend from 3 to 10 Most active devices will be stabilized with a single output resistor (Any shunt stabilization circuit must have a DC block if it will short the bias to ground)
A Quick Example Design a Wideband Feedback RF Amplifier (Fig 3122) Goal: Create a stable wideband 50- Class A RF amplifier with LCR feedback and collector bias The specifications and parameters for the amplifier are: VCC = 33 V IC = 12 mA VCE = 2 V S21 = 21 dB Transistor = NXP BFG425 (HFE(LOW) = 50 , HFE(MID) = 80, HFE(HIGH) = 120) Passband = 430 to 930 MHz One possible solution: 1 CC,Cb = 100 pF 2 RB = 82 k 3 RC = 110 4 Rf = 960 5 RSTAB = 130 6 Lf = 150 nH 7 LC = 160 nH 8 Cf = 14 pF
CB _low 01 F CB 100 pF
LC 160 nH
Lf 150 nH
Cf 14 pF
RF 960 CC 100 pF INPUT 50
RB 82 K
CC 100 pF OUTPUT 50 RSTAB 130
Q1 NXP BFG425
0 21316 dB 6
15 15 12 S11, S22 (dB)
05 K B1 06 12 18 24 3 36 42 48 54 Frequency (GHz)
GAIN S11 S22 Frequency (MHz)
100 290 480 670 806 1050 1240 1430 1620 1810 2000
FIGURE 3122 circuits
A complete example Class A wideband ampli er with bias, matching, and stabilization
Single-ended amplifier configurations cannot always supply us with all the RF power we need, since we may require up to several hundred watts of output power for certain applications This can be accomplished with RF parallel amplifiers (Fig 3123) While the design of such ultra high-powered amplifiers is beyond the focus of this book, lower-powered MMIC and discrete amplifiers are relatively easy to realize (<4 W)