print barcode labels in excel 2010 Positive Intrinsic Negative Diodes in Software

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Positive Intrinsic Negative Diodes
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Positive intrinsic negative (PIN) diodes are constructed of a thin intrinsic layer sandwiched between positive and negative doped layers Above certain frequencies (greater than 50 MHz) PIN diodes do not act as normal PN junction rectifier diodes, but as current-controlled resistors Their carrier lifetime specification decides the diode s low frequency limit, under which the PIN begins to function simply as a normal small signal junction diode PIN diodes can be operated as RF switches and attenuators, and will have a much lower On resistance than PN junction rectifier diodes PINs can be biased to supply a wide resistance range all the way down to 05 and up to 10 k with the application of a DC control current When employed as an electronic switch, this control current is switched On or Off, thus forcing the PIN to a very low resistance (On), or to a very high
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10000 RF RESISTANCE RS ( )
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1 0 01 10 IF (mA) 10 100
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FIGURE 129
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Forward bias current and RF resistance for one particular model of PIN diode
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resistance (Off), depending on the bias voltage When a PIN is used in an attenuator circuit, this control current can be changed in a linear manner, in nondiscrete steps, forcing the PIN to alter its resistance anywhere from between its lowest to highest rated resistance values Figure 129 displays a typical PIN diode s forward bias current and its resultant series RF resistance (RS)
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Schottky Diode
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The Schottky diode is constructed of a metal that is deposited on a semiconductor material, creating an electrostatic boundary between the resulting Schottky barrier These diodes can be found in microwave detectors, double-balanced modulators, harmonic generators, rectifiers, and mixers Some Schottky diodes can function up to 100 GHz, have a low forward barrier voltage, and are mechanically sturdy Zero-bias Schottkys are a type of diode with a very low forward voltage Figure 130 displays their I-V curves showing their forward voltage and the resultant forward current
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10 IF (mA)
01 0 02 04 06 08 10 VF (V) 12 14 16 18 20
FIGURE 130 Zero-bias Schottky diode I-V curves showing forward voltage and the resultant forward current
Wireless Essentials
Gunn Diodes
Gunn diodes can be forced to function as an oscillator at microwave frequencies The transit time of an electron through the Gunn diode determines the actual frequency of oscillation and, when the diode is inserted into a suitable resonant cavity, the Gunn device can oscillate at frequencies of up to 100 GHz However, the higher the frequency of the Gunn, the thinner it must be, which lowers its power dissipation abilities
Step-recovery diodes
A step-recovery diode (SRD) is a special diode employed in some microwave-frequency multiplication circuits The SRD functions in this role by switching between two opposite impedance conditions, low and high This change of state may occur in only 200 ps or less, thus discharging a very narrow pulse of energy An SRD can best be visualized as a capacitor that stores a charge, then discharges it at a very rapid rate, creating a waveform that is plentiful in harmonics Due to their high cost, SRDs are not as popular as they once were
123 Transistors
Bipolar Junction Transistor
A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is constructed of negative-postive-negative (NPN) or positive-negative-positive (PNP) doped regions, with the NPN type being by far the most common The emitter of the transistor provides the charges, while the base controls these charges The charges that have not entered the base are gathered by the collector Figure 131 reveals a silicon NPN transistor that has its emitter and base forward biased, with the collector reversed biased, to form a simple solid-state amplifier The negative terminal of the emitter-base battery repels the emitter s electrons, forcing them into the ultra-thin base But this narrow-base structure, due to the small amount of holes available for recombination, cannot possibly support the large number of electrons coming from the emitter This is why base current is always of such a small value, since the majority of the electrons, over 99%, are attracted by the positive potential on the much larger collector, where they continue to flood into the collector s positive bias supply This action is what forms the transistor s output current From the forgoing explanation, we see that IE = IB + IC and IB = IE IC; meaning that the currents through a transistor are completely proportional Thus, if the emitter current doubles, then so will the currents in the base and the collector But more important, this also means that if a small external bias or signal should increase this small base current then a proportional, but far greater, emitter and collector current will flow through the transistor If this collector current is sent through a high output resistance, this action will produce voltage amplification The input port of a common-emitter transistor has a low resistance due to its forward bias, so any signal inserted into the base-emitter junction will be across this low input resistance, thus causing the bipolar transistor to be current controlled by both the DC bias and any external signal voltages This is shown in the BJT s characteristic curves of
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