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Virtual Bode plotter inserted into an oscillator s open loop
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The effective methods commonly used to shift the oscillator s ports to a common impedance is by using a small value of un-bypassed resistor in series with the emitter, by changing our collector-to-base RF feedback part s values, or by employing LC port matching networks Figure 48 demonstrates how to best analyze an open-loop oscillator with a linear simulator By injecting a signal into the oscillator s input and checking the phase and gain at the oscillator s output, we will have a very good indication that our particular design is valid This is accomplished, as described above, by breaking the feedback loop of the oscillator, and attaching the software s 50- ports between the broken input/ output points of the oscillator To obtain the proper results, set the frequency and phase of the software s graph to linear, adjust the magnitude to display a gain of 20 to +20 dB, set the display to show phase values from 180 to +180 , and adjust the frequency sweep to approximately 25% of the expected oscillation frequency (narrow or widen as necessary to achieve the display as shown in the figure) This open-loop response test is a good indication that the oscillator will function as intended, since the RF software is outputting a 0 phase-angle signal, at the frequencies of interest, directly into the input of the oscillator s resonator, which then changes this 0 phase by 180 before it even reaches the input of the transistor The transistor, being in common-emitter configuration, changes the phase by another 180 , making for a total change of 360 , or 0 , for regenerative oscillatory feedback The proper phase change, at the appropriate amplitude, can be confirmed on the graph as shown in Fig 49 The graph is displaying the maximum gain peak at the frequency of the desired oscillation, which should occur at the same frequency as the phase trace when it crosses 0 from the output to the input of the oscillator (in order to sustain oscillatory feedback) To minimize noise, the S21 peak and the 0 phase crossing should correspond closely The gain trace, at its maximum amplitude, is called the gain margin when it is located at the same frequency as the point that the phase trace crosses the 0 phase point on the graph, and is measured in decibels The higher the gain margin the more tolerance the oscillator will have and still be able to start (or continue to oscillate) when components on the assembly line vary in tolerance, or the load varies in impedance Temperature will also have far less of a deleterious effect with this higher gain margin, with 6 dB being considered optimal The loop gain should be no more than this, however, for harmonic minimization, as well as for minimizing the phase-shift change that occurs when the oscillator is finally
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180 GAIN PEAK PHASE 144 108 72 36 0 36 0 IS IN CENTER OF PHASE SLOPE GAIN PHASE 21995 22 Frequency (MHz) 22005 72 108 144 180 2201 PHASE(deg)
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Perfect Bode plot of a correctly designed 22-MHz oscillator
run closed loop in nonlinear mode However, a value of no less than 3 dB should always be used to ensure reliable operation, or oscillator start-up over temperature, load, and part s variations will become erratic and/or slow for the completed closed-loop oscillator In fact, if an oscillator has a sufficiently high gain margin, closing the loop should only cause a minor shift in the RF design frequency, with the high open-loop gain being reduced to unity when the oscillator actually reaches its steady state When simulating the open-loop oscillator, not only should the gain peak be at the point where the phase is zero, but it should also be as close to the center of the phase slope as possible in order to maintain the oscillator s long-term stability and lownoise characteristics The amount of excess phase above or below this center of the phase slope is referred to as the phase margin, and is as important as the gain margin To adjust the zero crossing point of the phase to be more centered in the middle of the maximum phase slope, try varying the series VCC inductor s value, or swap out the VCC resistor with an inductor The zero crossing point of the phase is critical in an oscillator, since it is not the gain peak itself that sets the oscillator s frequency, but this transmission phase zero crossover point which, in the real world, may not always be at the exact same spot as the maximum gain peak After the linear S-parameter open-loop simulation procedure is successfully accomplished, then the oscillator s loop may be closed (Fig 410), and RF energy may then be tapped from the oscillator and placed into a load This tapped energy, however, will decrease the oscillator s own available loop feedback Figure 411 is shown using a series CCOUPLE to remove energy from the oscillator s output port and into the load Coupling out the oscillator s RF energy, without decreasing its feedback to excessively low levels, will be discussed later in this chapter CCOUPLE may be either a series XC or XL of approximately 100 that is placed at the oscillator s output, with a 50- load attached, and a simulation attempted with the Spice oscilloscope and FFT tool These software tools are connected across the 50- load to confirm proper oscillation frequency, amplitude, start-up, harmonics, and so on [Sometimes a Spice frequency source must be included somewhere within the Spice
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