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Table 1 -1 C's Place in the World of Programming Languages
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All high-level programming languages support the concept of data types A data type defines a set of values that a variable can store along with a set of operations that can be performed on that variable Common data types are integer, character, and floating-point Although C has several builtin data types, it is not a strongly typed language, as are Pascal and Ada C permits almost all type conversions For example, you may freely intermix character and integer types in an expression Unlike most high-level languages, C specifies almost no run-time error checking For example, no check is performed to ensure that array boundaries are not overrun These types of checks are the responsibility of the programmer In the same vein, C does not demand strict type compatibility between a parameter and an argument As you may know from your other programming experience, a high-level computer language will typically require that the type of an argument be (more or less) exactly the same type as the parameter that will receive the argument Such is not the case for C Instead, C allows an argument to be of any type so long as it can be reasonably converted into the type of the parameter Further, C provides all of the automatic conversions to accomplish this C is special in that it allows the direct manipulation of bits, bytes, words, and pointers This makes it well suited for system-level programming, where these operations are common Another important aspect of C is that it has only a small number of keywords, which are the commands that make up the C language For example, C89 defined 32 keywords, and C99 adds only 5 more High-level languages typically have many more keywords As a comparison, consider that most versions of BASIC have well over 100 keywords! C Is a Structured Language In your previous programming experience, you may have heard the term block-structured applied to a computer language Although the term block-structured language does not strictly apply to C, C is commonly referred to simply as a structured language It has many similarities to other structured languages, such as ALGOL, Pascal, and Modula-2
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NOTE The reason that C is not , technically , a block-structured language is that blockstructured languages permit procedures or functions to be declared inside other procedures or functions However, since C does not allow the creation of functions within functions, it cannot formally be called block-structured
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The distinguishing feature of a structured language is compartmentalization of code and data This is the ability of a language to section off and hide from the rest of the program all information and instructions necessary to perform a specific task One way that you achieve compartmentalization is by using subroutines that employ local (temporary) variables By using local variables, you can write subroutines so that the
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events that occur within them cause no side effects in other parts of the program This capability makes it very easy for your C programs to share sections of code If you develop compartmentalized functions, you need to know only what a function does, not how it does it Remember, excessive use of global variables (variables known throughout the entire program) may allow bugs to creep into a program by allowing unwanted side effects (Anyone who has programmed in standard BASIC is well aware of this problem) A structured language offers a variety of programming possibilities For example, structured languages typically support several loop constructs, such as while, do-while, and for In a structured language, the use of goto is either prohibited or discouraged and is not the common form of program control (as is the case in standard BASIC and traditional FORTRAN, for example) A structured language allows you to place statements anywhere on a line and does not require a strict field concept (as some older FORTRANs do) Here are some examples of structured and nonstructured languages: Nonstructured FORTRAN BASIC COBOL Structured Pascal Ada C++ C Java Modula-2 Structured languages tend to be of more recent creation In fact, a mark of an old computer language is that it is nonstructured Today, few programmers would consider using a nonstructured language for serious, new programs
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NOTE New versions of many older languages have attempted to add structured elements BASIC is an example However, the shortcomings of these languages can never be fully mitigated because they were not designed along structured design principles from the beginning
C's main structural component is the function C's stand-alone subroutine In C, functions are the building blocks in which all program activity occurs They allow you to define and code individually the separate tasks in a program, thus allowing your programs to be modular After you have created a function, you can rely on it to work properly in various situations without creating side effects in other parts of the program Being able to create stand-alone functions is extremely important in larger projects where one programmer's code must not accidentally affect another's
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