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causes p1 to have the value 1998
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Page 125
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Generalizing from the preceding example, the following rules govern pointer arithmetic Each time a pointer is incremented, it points to the memory location of the next element of its base type Each time it is decremented, it points to the location of the previous element When applied to char pointers, this will appear as ''normal" arithmetic because a char object is always 1 byte long no matter what the environment All other pointers will increase or decrease by the length of the data type they point to This approach ensures that a pointer is always pointing to an appropriate element of its base type Figure 5-2 illustrates this concept You are not limited to the increment and decrement operators For example, you may add or subtract integers to or from pointers The expression
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p1 = p1 + 12;
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makes p1 point to the 12th element of p1's type beyond the one it currently points to Besides addition and subtraction of a pointer and an integer, only one other arithmetic operation is allowed: You can subtract one pointer from another in order to find the number of objects of their base type that separate the two All other arithmetic operations are prohibited Specifically, you cannot multiply or divide pointers; you cannot add two pointers; you cannot apply the bitwise operators to them; and you cannot add or subtract type float or double to or from pointers
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Figure 5-2 All pointer arithmetic is relative to its base type (assume 2-byte integers)
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Pointer Comparisons You can compare two pointers in a relational expression For instance, given two pointers p and q, the following statement is perfectly valid:
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if(p < q) printf("p points to lower memory than q\n");
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Generally, pointer comparisons are useful only when two pointers point to a common object, such as an array As an example, a set of stack functions are developed that store and retrieve integer values As most readers will know, a stack is a list that uses first-in, last-out accessing It is often compared to a stack of plates on a table the first one set down is the last one to be used Stacks are used frequently in compilers, interpreters, spreadsheets, and other system-related software To create a stack, you need two functions: push( ) and pop( ) The push( ) function places values on the stack, and pop( ) takes them off These routines are shown here with a simple main( ) function to drive them The program puts the values you enter into the stack If you enter 0, a value is popped from the stack To stop the program, enter 1
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#include <stdioh> #include <stdlibh> #define SIZE 50 void push(int i); int pop(void); int *tos, *pl, stack[SIZE]; int main(void) { int value;
tos = stack; /* tos points to the top of stack */ p1 = stack; /* initialize p1 */ do { printf(''Enter value: "); scanf("%d", &value); if(value != 0) push(value); else printf("value on top is %d\n", pop());
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Page 127 } while(value != -1); return 0; } void push(int i) { p1++; if(p1 == (tos+SIZE)) { printf(''Stack Overflow\n"); exit(1); } *p1 = i; } int pop(void) { if(p1 == tos) { printf("Stack Underflow \n"); exit(1); } p1--; return *(p1+1); }
You can see that memory for the stack is provided by the array stack The pointer p1 is set to point to the first element in stack The p1 variable accesses the stack The variable tos holds the memory address of the top of the stack It is used to prevent stack overflows and underflows Once the stack has been initialized, push( ) and pop( ) can be used Both the push( ) and pop( ) functions perform a relational test on the pointer p1 to detect limit errors In push( ), p1 is tested against the end of the stack by adding SIZE (the size of the stack) to tos This prevents an overflow In pop( ), p1 is checked against tos to be sure that a stack underflow has not occurred In pop( ), the parentheses are necessary in the return statement Without them, the statement would look like this,
return *p1+1;
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