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7 Structures, Unions, Enumerations, and typedef
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The C language gives you five ways to create a custom data type: The structure, which is a grouping of variables under one name and is called an aggregate data type (The terms compound or conglomerate are also commonly used) The union, which enables the same piece of memory to be defined as two or more different types of variables The bit-field, which is a special type of structure or union element that allows easy access to individual bits The enumeration, which is a list of named integer constants The typedef keyword, which defines a new name for an existing type Each of these features is described in this chapter Structures A structure is a collection of variables referenced under one name, providing a convenient means of keeping related information together A structure declaration forms a template that can be used to create structure objects (that is, instances of a structure) The variables that make up the structure are called members (Structure members are also commonly referred to as elements or fields) Usually, the members of a structure are logically related For example, the name and address information in a mailing list would normally be represented in a structure The following code fragment shows how to declare a structure that defines the name and address fields The keyword struct tells the compiler that a structure is being declared
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struct addr { char name[30]; char street[40]; char city[20]; char state[3]; unsigned long int zip; };
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Notice that the declaration is terminated by a semicolon This is because a structure declaration is a statement Also, the structure tag addr identifies this particular data structure and is its type specifier At this point, no variable has actually been created Only the form of the data has been defined When you declare a structure, you are defining an aggregate type, not a
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variable Not until you declare a variable of that type does one actually exist To declare a variable (that is, a physical object) of type addr, write
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struct addr addr_info;
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This declares a variable of type addr called addr_info Thus, addr describes the form of a structure (its type), and addr_info is an instance (an object) of the structure When a structure variable (such as addr_info) is declared, the compiler automatically allocates sufficient memory to accommodate all of its members Figure 7-1 shows how addr_info appears in memory, assuming 4-byte long integers You can also declare one or more objects when you declare a structure For example,
struct addr { char name[30]; char street[40]; char city[20]; char state[3]; unsigned long int zip; } addr_info, binfo, cinfo;
defines a structure type called addr and declares variables addr_info, binfo, and cinfo of that type It is important to understand that each structure variable contains its own copies of the structure's members For example, the zip field of binfo is separate and distinct from the zip field of cinfo Changes to zip in binfo do not, for example, affect the zip in cinfo
Figure 7-1 The addr_Info structure in memory
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If you only need one structure variable, the structure tag is not needed This means that
struct { char name[30]; char street[40]; char city[20]; char state[3]; unsigned long int zip; } addr_info;
declares one variable named addr_info as defined by the structure preceding it The general form of a structure declaration is struct tag { type member-name; type member-name; type member-name; } structure-variables;
where either tag or structure-variables may be omitted, but not both Accessing Structure Members
addr_infozip = 12345;
The object name (in this case, addr_info) followed by a period and the member name (in this case, zip) refers to that individual member The general form for accessing a member of a structure is object-namemember-name Therefore, to print the ZIP code on the screen, write
printf("%lu", addr_infozip);
This prints the ZIP code contained in the zip member of the structure variable addr_info
Individual members of a structure are accessed through the use of the operator (usually called the dot operator) For example, the following statement assigns the ZIP code 12345 to the zip field of the structure variable addr_info declared earlier:
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