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where fp is a file pointer returned by a call to fopen( ) fprintf( ) and fscanf( ) direct their I/O operations to the file pointed to by fp As an example, the following program reads a string and an integer from the keyboard and writes them to a disk file called TEST The program then reads the file and displays the information on the screen After running this program, examine the TEST file As you will see, it contains humanreadable text
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/* fscanf() - fprintf() example */ #include <stdioh> #include <ioh> #include <stdlibh> int main(void) { FILE *fp; char s[80]; int t; if((fp=fopen("test", "w")) == NULL) { printf(''Cannot open file\n"); exit(1); } printf("Enter a string and a number: "); fscanf(stdin, "%s%d", s, &t); /* read from keyboard */ fprintf(fp, "%s %d", s, t); /* write to file */ fclose(fp); if((fp=fopen("test","r")) == NULL) { printf("Cannot open file\n"); exit(1); } fscanf(fp, "%s%d", s, &t); /* read from file */ fprintf(stdout, "%s %d", s, t); /* print on screen */ return 0; }
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A word of warning: Although fprintf( ) and fscanf( ) often are the easiest way to write and read assorted data to disk files, they are not always the most efficient Because
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formatted ASCII data is being written as it would appear on the screen (instead of in binary), extra overhead is incurred with each call So, if speed or file size is a concern, you should probably use fread( ) and fwrite( ) The Standard Streams As it relates to the C file system, when a program starts execution, three streams are opened automatically They are stdin (standard input), stdout (standard output), and stderr (standard error) Normally, these streams refer to the console, but they can be redirected by the operating system to some other device in environments that support redirectable I/O (Redirectable I/O is supported by Windows, DOS, Unix, and OS/2, for example) Because the standard streams are file pointers, they may be used by the C I/O system to perform I/O operations on the console For example, putchar( ) could be defined like this:
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int putchar(char c) { return putc(c, stdout); }
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In general, stdin is used to read from the console, and stdout and stderr are used to write to the console You can use stdin , stdout, and stderr as file pointers in any function that uses a variable of type FILE * For example, you could use fgets( ) to input a string from the console using a call like this:
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char str[255]; fgets(str, 80, stdin);
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In fact, using fgets( ) in this manner can be quite useful As mentioned earlier in this book, when using gets( ), it is possible to overrun the array that is being used to receive the characters entered by the user because gets( ) provides no bounds checking When used with stdin , the fgets( ) function offers a useful alternative because it can limit the number of characters read and thus prevent array overruns The only trouble is that fgets( ) does not remove the newline character and gets( ) does, so you will have to manually remove it, as shown in the following program:
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#include <stdioh> #include <stringh>
Page 257 int main(void) { char str[80]; int i; printf("Enter a string: "); fgets(str, 10, stdin); /* remove newline, if present */ i = strlen(str) - l; if(str[i]=='\n') str[i] = '\0'; printf("This is your string: %s", str); return 0; }
Keep in mind that stdin , stdout, and stderr are not variables in the normal sense and can not be assigned a value using fopen( ) Also, just as these file pointers are created automatically at the start of your program, they are closed automatically at the end; you should not try to close them The Console I/O Connection C makes little distinction between console I/O and file I/O The console I/O functions described in 8 actually direct their I/O operations to either stdin or stdout In essence, the console I/O functions are simply special versions of their parallel file functions The reason they exist is as a convenience to you, the programmer As described in the previous section, you can perform console I/O using any of C's file system functions However, what might surprise you is that you can perform disk file I/O using console I/O functions, such as printf( )! This is because all of the console I/O functions described in 8 operate on stdin and stdout In environments that allow redirection of I/O, this means that stdin and stdout could refer to a device other than the keyboard and screen For example, consider this program:
#include <stdioh> int main(void) { char str[80];
Page 258 printf("Enter a string: "); gets(str); printf(str); return 0; }
Assume that this program is called TEST If you execute TEST normally, it displays its prompt on the screen, reads a string from the keyboard, and displays that string on the screen However, in an environment that supports I/O redirection, either stdin , stdout, or both could be redirected to a file For example, in a DOS or Windows environment, executing TEST like this,
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