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Local Variables Variables that are declared inside a function are called local variables In some C literature, these variables are referred to as automatic variables This book uses the more common term local variable Local variables can be used only by statements that are inside the block in which the variables are declared In other words, local variables are not known outside their own code block Remember, a block of code begins with an opening curly brace and terminates with a closing curly brace Local variables exist only while the block of code in which they are declared is executing That is, a local variable is created upon entry into its block and destroyed upon exit Furthermore, a variable declared within one code block has no bearing on or relationship to another variable with the same name declared within a different code block The most common code block in which local variables are declared is the function For example, consider the following two functions:
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void func1(void) { int x; x = 10; } void func2(void) { int x; x = -199; }
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The integer variable x is declared twice, once in func1( ) and once in func2( ) The x in func1( ) has no bearing on or relationship to the x in func2( ) As explained, this is because each x is known only to the code within the block in which it is declared The C language contains the keyword auto, which you can use to declare local variables However, since all nonglobal variables are, by default, assumed to be auto, this keyword is virtually never used Hence, the examples in this book will not use it For reasons of convenience and tradition, most programmers declare all the variables used by a function immediately after the function's opening curly brace and before any other statements However, you may declare local variables within any code block The block defined by a function is simply a special case For example:
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Page 23 void f(void) { int t; scanf("%d%*c", &t); if(t==l) { char s[80]; /* this is created only upon entry into this block */ printf(''Enter name:"); gets(s); /* do something */ } /* s not known here */ }
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Here, the local variable s is created upon entry into the if code block and destroyed upon exit Furthermore, s is known only within the if block and cannot be referenced elsewhere even in other parts of the function that contains it Declaring variables within the block of code that uses them helps prevent unwanted side effects Since the variable does not exist outside the block in which it is declared, it cannot be accidentally altered by other code When a variable declared within an inner block has the same name as a variable declared by an enclosing block, the variable in the inner block hides the variable in the outer block Consider the following:
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#include <stdioh> int main(void) { int x; x = 10; if(x == 10) { int x; /* this x hides the outer x */ x = 99; printf("Inner x: %d\n", x); }
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Page 24 printf("Outer x: %d\n", x); return 0; }
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The program displays this output:
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Inner x: 99 Outer x: 10
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In this example, the x that is declared within the if block hides the outer x Thus, the inner x and the outer x are two separate and distinct objects Once that block ends, the outer x once again becomes visible In C89, you must declare all local variables at the start of a block, prior to any ''action" statements For example, the following function is in error if compiled by a C89-compatible compiler
/* This function is in error if compiled as a C89 program */ void f(void) { int i; i = 10;
int j; /* this line will cause an error */ j = 20; }
However, in C99 (and in C++), this function is perfectly valid because you can declare local variables at any point within a block, prior to their first use Because local variables are created and destroyed with each entry and exit from the block in which they are declared, their content is lost once the block is left This is especially important to remember when calling a function When a function is called, its local variables are created, and upon its return they are destroyed This means that local variables cannot retain their values between calls (However, you can direct the compiler to retain their values by using the static modifier) Unless otherwise specified, local variables are stored on the stack The fact that the stack is a dynamic and changing region of memory explains why local variables cannot, in general, hold their values between function calls
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