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We will begin our discussion of the PIX by initially answering the question, "just what is the PIX " The PIX is a complete hardware and software solution, similar in this regard to a router The PIX IOS runs only on the special PIX hardware and cannot be ported to other hardware platforms Similarly, the PIX hardware does not support any other operating systems such as Unix or NT Figure 10 1 shows a view of the PIX from the front
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Figure 10-1: Front view of the PIX
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Figure 10 2 shows a view of the PIX from the back
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Figure 10-2: Back view of the PIX
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The PIX hardware is essentially a hybrid system In most respects, it resembles a rack mountable personal computer without a hard drive Instead of a hard drive, the PIX stores both its configuration and its IOS image on a two-MB flash card Note that this is unlike a Cisco router that stores its configuration in a completely separate NVRAM area In addition to flash memory, the PIX also has a floppy drive that can be used to save and restore the configuration The floppy drive is used to upgrade the IOS image on the two-MB flash memory card using a specially created PIX boot floppy The utility and instructions for performing this operation are available on the Cisco Web site (wwwciscocom) The PIX is specifically designed to perform a very limited number of tasks The PIX has two central purposes: 1Provide Network Address Translation (NAT) functionality
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2Provide network security All of the functions of the PIX are designed with these two goals in mind Although the most current PIX hardware and software can support up to four LAN interfaces, the original PIX supported only two interfaces, a trusted and an untrusted link In PIX terminology, the trusted link is called the "inside" interface and the untrusted link is called the "outside" interface These two interfaces are required for the PIX to function NoteIn the context of this chapter, unless specifically stated otherwise, the term "outbound" means connections from a more trusted side of the PIX to a less trusted side of the PIX The term "inbound" means connections from a less trusted side of the PIX to a more trusted side of the PIX The trust level of each interface can be set and is called the security level The insideinterface is always the most trusted or highest security interface and the outside interface is always the least trusted or lowest security interface The PIX default policy is very simple: allow everything outbound from the inside interface to the outside interface and allow only return connections from the outside interface to the inside interface The use of more than two LAN interfaces complicates this rule, but this concept is essentially unchanged in all versions of the PIX and grasping this principle is central to understanding the security of the PIX We will return to this topic throughout this chapter Figure 10 3 shows a graphical representation of this concept
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Figure 10-3: The default configuration of the PIX allows all connections from the inside interface to the outside but only return connections from the outside interface to the inside
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The PIX handles connections from an inside interface to an outside interface much differently than connections from the outside to the inside All outbound connections from the inside interface to the outside one are permitted unless specifically denied In contrast, only established connections are permitted from the outside interface to the inside one Special commands must be used to permit connections from an outside interface to one inside We will cover the commands to allow connections from an outside interface to an inside interface later in this chapter
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The PIX maintains information about the state of existing connections in order to know whether packets inbound from an outside interface are part of an existing conversation If the PIX does not recognize that the incoming packets are part of an existing conversation, the packets are dropped
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recognize that the incoming packets are part of an existing conversation, the packets are dropped and information about the packet is logged As mentioned, special commands can be used to allow inbound connections that are not part of an existing conversation The PIX IOS is aware of the behavior of many applications, so it can securely handle many multichannel protocols In these respects, it has capabilities similar to that of Context Based Access Control (CBAC) Recall our discussion of stateful inspection and CBAC earlier in s 8 and 9 Both 10/100 Ethernet and Token Ring LAN cards can be installed in the PIX These cards are essentially the same network cards that can be installed in other host devices that support ISA or PCI bus interfaces However, because the PIX IOS is very specialized, only certain vendor cards are guaranteed to work with the PIX IOS A list of compatible cards can be obtained from your local Cisco representative Using non-approved cards in the PIX voids the warranty and is highly discouraged The PIX does not support wide area network (WAN) interfaces, so a router is required for wide area connectivity The PIX is initially configured in the same manner as a Cisco router via a direct console cable The console connection on the PIX allows configuration through a terminal emulation program, such as Windows HyperTerminal The PIX also supports remote administration via the telnet protocol, but access via telnet must be explicitly enabled As we will see later, Cisco has introduced a management console called the PIX Manger that provides a GUI interface for managing single or multiple PIX boxes
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