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Although the majority of network activity will most likely be from a higher security interface to a lower one, it is often desirable to allow direct connections from a lower to a higher We have seen how to allow connections from a higher security interface to a lower one by using the nat and global commands We will now show how to allow connections from a lower security interface to a higher security interface by using the static and conduit commands The static command is used to create a permanent mapping between an inside IP address and a global IP address Under normal conditions, when a connection is initiated from a higher security interface to a lower security interface and address translation is used, whatever address is available is just picked from the IP address range defined by the global command There is also no way to know beforehand which IP address will be made available from the global IP address pool By using the static command, you can dedicate a particular global IP address to a particular inside IP address This is a necessary first step to allow communication from a lower security interface to a higher one The syntax of the static command is shown here: static [(internal_if_name, external_if_name)] global_ip local_ip [netmask network_mask] [max_conns[em_limit]] [norandomseq]
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external_if_name is the lower security interface from which you are allowing access The global_ip is the IP address as it is seen on the lower security interface, while the local_ip is the IP address used on the higher security interface The netmask parameter is optional and defaults to 255255255255 NoteIf nat 0 is used, the global_ip and the local_ip will be the same address This is because when using nat 0 there is no global pool of IP addresses to map to the internal IP addresses The max_conns, em_limit, and norandomseq parameters are all optional and are used in the same manner as they are with the nat command that was discussed earlier in this chapter Notice that the format of the static command is a bit confusing when defining the internal_if_name, external_if_name, global_ip, and local_ip parameters The order of the internal_if_name and the external_if_name is high, low The order of the global_ip and the local_ip is low, high That is, the global_ip parameter is the IP address that appears on the interface named by the external_if_name parameter The local_ip parameter is the IP address that appears on the interface named by the internal_if_name parameter We show an example of the static command in Figure 10 9
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Figure 10-9: A static translation creates a permanent mapping between an outside address and an inside address, but it does not allow connections from devices on the outside to the statically translated IP address by itself
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Notice that even though we have created the static mapping, connections from the outside interface to the inside interface are still blocked by the adaptive security algorithm of the PIX Outbound connections from the inside host would be allowed and the return connections would be allowed just as they would normally if the inside host had obtained an IP address from a global pool If both a global pool and static mappings are used on the same inside interface, the IP addresses defined in the static mappings should not be in the range of IP addresses defined by the global pool Also, the global_ip parameter for your static mappings cannot use the IP address assigned to the outside interface of the PIX
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In order to allow connections inbound from a lower security interface to a higher security interface, a conduit command must be used The conduit command is what actually creates exceptions to
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IP address that is always mapped to a particular inside IP address The syntax of the conduit is shown below: Version #1 conduit permit|deny protocol global_ip global_mask [operator port[port]] foreign_ip foreign_mask [operator port[port]] Version #2 conduit permit|deny icmp global_ip global_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask [icmp-type] Notice that there are two versions of the conduit command The first version is used to allow TCP or UDP protocols and the second is used for the ICMP protocol The global_ip and global_mask define the IP address or addresses where connections are being permitted This is the same global_ip that is referenced in a static command The operator is a comparison value, such as GT for greater than, LT for less than, EQ for equal, NEQ for not equal, and RANGE to specify a range of ports The operator is applied to the port parameter The port parameter immediately following the global_maskparameter is the destination port you are allowing access to on the host using the IP address defined by the global_ip parameter The foreign_ip and foreign_mask define the IP address or addresses you are allowing access from on an outside network The port parameter immediately following the foreign_mask parameter is the source port from which the hosts defined by the foreign_ip and foreign_mask are allowed to initiate connections Notice that in the ICMP version, the destination ICMP type is used instead of a source and destination port number As we have seen previously, a port number of 0 indicates any port can be used In the ICMP version, you could just leave off the ICMP type to signify that any ICMP type can be used To specify that any IP address can be used, either 0000 or the keyword any should be used with the global_ip and foreign_ip parameters In Figure 10 10, we show conduits that will allow access to the server on the inside interface from devices on the outside interface
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