Initializing Allocated Memory in .NET

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Initializing Allocated Memory
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You can initialize allocated memory to some known value by putting an initializer after the type name in the new statement Here is the general form of new when an initialization is included: p_var = new var_type (initializer);
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Of course, the type of the initializer must be compatible with the type of data for which memory is being allocated This program gives the allocated integer an initial value of 87:
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#include <iostream> #include <new> using namespace std; int main() { int *p; try { p = new int (87); // initialize to 87 } catch (bad_alloc xa) { cout << "Allocation Failure\n"; return 1; } cout << "At " << p << " "; cout << "is the value " << *p << "\n"; delete p; return 0; }
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Allocating Arrays
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You can allocate arrays using new by using this general form: p_var = new array_type [size]; Here, size specifies the number of elements in the array To free an array, use this form of delete: delete [ ] p_var; Here, the [ ] informs delete that an array is being released For example, the next program allocates a 10-element integer array
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Arrays, Pointers, References, and the Dynamic Allocation Operators
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#include <iostream> #include <new> using namespace std; int main() { int *p, i; try { p = new int [10]; // allocate 10 integer array } catch (bad_alloc xa) { cout << "Allocation Failure\n"; return 1; } for(i=0; i<10; i++ ) p[i] = i; for(i=0; i<10; i++) cout << p[i] << " "; delete [] p; // release the array return 0; }
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Notice the delete statement As just mentioned, when an array allocated by new is released, delete must be made aware that an array is being freed by using the [ ] (As you will see in the next section, this is especially important when you are allocating arrays of objects) One restriction applies to allocating arrays: They may not be given initial values That is, you may not specify an initializer when allocating arrays
Allocating Objects
You can allocate objects dynamically by using new When you do this, an object is created and a pointer is returned to it The dynamically created object acts just like any other object When it is created, its constructor (if it has one) is called When the object is freed, its destructor is executed
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Here is a short program that creates a class called balance that links a person's name with his or her account balance Inside main( ), an object of type balance is created dynamically
#include <iostream> #include <new> #include <cstring> using namespace std; class balance { double cur_bal; char name[80]; public: void set(double n, char *s) { cur_bal = n; strcpy(name, s); } void get_bal(double &n, char *s) { n = cur_bal; strcpy(s, name); } }; int main() { balance *p; char s[80]; double n; try { p = new balance; } catch (bad_alloc xa) { cout << "Allocation Failure\n"; return 1; } p->set(1238787, "Ralph Wilson"); p->get_bal(n, s); cout << s << "'s balance is: " << n;
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Arrays, Pointers, References, and the Dynamic Allocation Operators
cout << "\n"; delete p; return 0; }
Because p contains a pointer to an object, the arrow operator is used to access members of the object As stated, dynamically allocated objects may have constructors and destructors Also, the constructors can be parameterized Examine this version of the previous program:
#include <iostream> #include <new> #include <cstring> using namespace std; class balance { double cur_bal; char name[80]; public: balance(double n, char *s) { cur_bal = n; strcpy(name, s); } ~balance() { cout << "Destructing "; cout << name << "\n"; } void get_bal(double &n, char *s) { n = cur_bal; strcpy(s, name); } }; int main() { balance *p; char s[80]; double n;
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